3.1 – Buying call option

In the previous chapters we looked at the basic structure of a call option and understood the broad context under which it makes sense to buy a call option. In this chapter, we will formally structure our thoughts on the call option and get a firm understanding on both buying and selling of the call option. Before we move ahead any further in this chapter, here is a quick recap of what we learnt in the first chapter –

  1. It makes sense to be a buyer of a call option when you expect the underlying price to increase
  2. If the underlying price remains flat or goes down then the buyer of the call option loses money
  3. The money the buyer of the call option would lose is equivalent to the premium (agreement fees) the buyer pays to the seller/writer of the call option

We will keep the above three points in perspective (which serves as basic guidelines) and understand the call option to a greater extent.

3.2 – Building a case for a call option

There are many situations in the market that warrants the purchase of a call option. Here is one that I just discovered while writing this chapter, thought the example would fit well in the context of our discussions. Have a look at the chart below –


The stock in consideration is Bajaj Auto Limited. As you may know, they are one of the biggest manufacturers of two wheelers in India. For various reasons the stock has been beaten down in the market, so much so that the stock is trading at its 52 week low price. I believe there could be an opportunity to initiate a trade here. Here are my thoughts with respect to this trade –

  1. Bajaj Auto is a quality fundamental stock, there is no denying this.
  2. The stock has been beaten down so heavily, makes me believe this could be the market’s over reaction to volatility in Bajaj Auto’s business cycle.
  3. I expect the stock price to stop falling sometime soon and eventually rise.
  4. However I do not want to buy the stock for delivery (yet) as I’m worried about a further decline of the stock.
  5. Extending the above point, the worry of M2M losses prevents me from buying Bajaj Auto’s futures as well.
  6. At the same time I don’t want to miss an opportunity of a sharp reversal in the stock price.

To sum up, I’m optimistic on the stock price of Bajaj Auto (the stock price to eventually increase) but I’m kind of uncertain about the immediate outlook on the stock. The uncertainty is mainly due the fact that my losses in the short term could be intense if the weakness in the stock persists. However as per my estimate the probability of the loss is low, but nevertheless the probability still exists. So what should I do?

Now, if you realize I’m in a similar dilemma that was Ajay was in (recall the Ajay – Venu example from chapter 1). A circumstance such as this, builds up for a classic case of an options trade.

In the context of my dilemma, clearly buying a call option on Bajaj Auto makes sense for reasons I will explain shortly. Here is a snapshot of Bajaj Auto’s option chain –


As we can see the stock is trading at Rs.2026.9 (highlighted in blue). I will choose to buy 2050 strike call option by paying a premium of Rs.6.35/- (highlighted in red box and red arrow). You may be wondering on what basis I choose the 2050 strike price when in fact there are so many different strike prices available (highlighted in green)?. Well, the process of strike price selection is a vast topic on its own, we will eventually get there in this module, but for now let us just believe 2050 is the right strike price to trade.

3.3 – Intrinsic value of a call option (upon expiry)

So what happens to the call option now considering the expiry is 15 days away? Well, broadly speaking there are three possible scenarios which I suppose you are familiar with by now –

Scenario 1 – The stock price goes above the strike price, say 2080

Scenario 2 – The stock price goes below the strike price, say 2030

Scenario 3 – The stock price stays at 2050

The above 3 scenarios are very similar to the ones we had looked at in chapter 1, hence I will also assume that you are familiar with the P&L calculation at the specific value of the spot in the  given scenarios above (if not, I would suggest you read through Chapter 1 again).

The idea I’m interested in exploring now is this –

  1. You will agree there are only 3 broad scenarios under which the price movement of Bajaj Auto can be classified (upon expiry) i.e. the price either increases, decreases, or stays flat
  2. But what about all the different prices in between? For example if as per Scenario 1 the price is considered to be at 2080 which is above the strike of 2050. What about other strike prices such as 2055, 2060, 2065, 2070 etc? Can we generalize anything here with respect to the P&L?
  3. In scenario 2, the price is considered to be at 2030 which is below the strike of 2050. What about other strike prices such as 2045, 2040, 2035 etc? Can we generalize anything here with respect to the P&L?

What would happen to the P&L at various possible prices of spot (upon expiry) – I would like to call these points as the “Possible values of the spot on expiry” and sort of generalize the P&L understanding of the call option.

In order to do this, I would like to first talk about (in part and not the full concept) the idea of the ‘intrinsic value of the option upon expiry’.

The intrinsic value (IV) of the option upon expiry (specifically a call option for now) is defined as the non – negative value which the option buyer is entitled to if he were to exercise the call option. In simple words ask yourself (assuming you are the buyer of a call option) how much money you would receive upon expiry, if the call option you hold is profitable. Mathematically it is defined as –

IV = Spot Price – Strike Price

So if Bajaj Auto on the day of expiry is trading at 2068 (in the spot market) the 2050 Call option’s intrinsic value would be –

= 2068 – 2050

= 18

Likewise, if Bajaj Auto is trading at 2025 on the expiry day the intrinsic value of the option would be –

= 2025 – 2050

= -25

But remember, IV of an option (irrespective of a call or put) is a non negative number; hence we leave the IV at 2025

= 0

Now our objective is to keep the idea of intrinsic value of the option in perspective, and to identify how much money I will make at every possible expiry value of Bajaj Auto and in the process make some generalizations on the call option buyer’s P&L.

3.4 – Generalizing the P&L for a call option buyer

Now keeping the concept of intrinsic value of an option at the back of our mind, let us work towards building a table which would help us identify how much money, I as the buyer of Bajaj Auto’s 2050 call option would make under the various possible spot value changes of Bajaj Auto (in spot market) on expiry. Do remember the premium paid for this option is Rs 6.35/–. Irrespective of how the spot value changes, the fact that I have paid Rs.6.35/- remains unchanged. This is the cost that I have incurred in order to buy the 2050 Call Option. Let us keep this in perspective and work out the P&L table –

Please note – the negative sign before the premium paid represents a cash out flow from my trading account.

Serial No. Possible values of spot Premium Paid Intrinsic Value (IV) P&L (IV + Premium)
01 1990 (-) 6.35 1990 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
02 2000 (-) 6.35 2000 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
03 2010 (-) 6.35 2010 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
04 2020 (-) 6.35 2020 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
05 2030 (-) 6.35 2030 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
06 2040 (-) 6.35 2040 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
07 2050 (-) 6.35 2050 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
08 2060 (-) 6.35 2060 – 2050 = 10 = 10 +(-6.35) = + 3.65
09 2070 (-) 6.35 2070 – 2050 = 20 = 20 +(-6.35) = + 13.65
10 2080 (-) 6.35 2080 – 2050 = 30 = 30 +(-6.35) = + 23.65
11 2090 (-) 6.35 2090 – 2050 = 40 = 40 +(-6.35) = + 33.65
12 2100 (-) 6.35 2100 – 2050 = 50 = 50 +(-6.35) = + 43.65

So what do you observe? The table above throws out 2 strong observations –

  1. Even if the price of Bajaj Auto goes down (below the strike price of 2050), the maximum loss seems to be just Rs.6.35/-
    1. Generalization 1 – For a call option buyer a loss occurs when the spot price moves below the strike price. However the loss to the call option buyer is restricted to the extent of the premium he has paid
  2. The profit from this call option seems to increase exponentially as and when Bajaj Auto starts to move above the strike price of 2050
    1. Generalization 2 – The call option becomes profitable as and when the spot price moves over and above the strike price. The higher the spot price goes from the strike price, the higher the profit.
  3. From the above 2 generalizations it is fair for us to say that the buyer of the call option has a limited risk and a potential to make an unlimited profit.

Here is a general formula that tells you the Call option P&L for a given spot price –

P&L = Max [0, (Spot Price – Strike Price)] – Premium Paid

Going by the above formula, let’s evaluate the P&L for a few possible spot values on expiry –

  1. 2023
  2. 2072
  3. 2055

The solution is as follows –


= Max [0, (2023 – 2050)] – 6.35

= Max [0, (-27)] – 6.35

= 0 – 6.35

= – 6.35

The answer is in line with Generalization 1 (loss restricted to the extent of premium paid).


= Max [0, (2072 – 2050)] – 6.35

= Max [0, (+22)] – 6.35

= 22 – 6.35

= +15.65

The answer is in line with Generalization 2 (Call option gets profitable as and when the spot price moves over and above the strike price).


= Max [0, (2055 – 2050)] – 6.35

= Max [0, (+5)] – 6.35

= 5 – 6.35

= -1.35

So, here is a tricky situation, the result what we obtained here is against the 2nd generalization. Despite the spot price being above the strike price, the trade is resulting in a loss! Why is this so? Also if you observe the loss is much lesser than the maximum loss of Rs.6.35/-, it is in fact just Rs.1.35/-. To understand why this is happening we should diligently inspect the P&L behavior around the spot value which is slightly above the strike price (2050 in this case).

Serial No. Possible values of spot Premium Paid Intrinsic Value (IV) P&L (IV + Premium)
01 2050 (-) 6.35 2050 – 2050 = 0 = 0 + (– 6.35) = – 6.35
02 2051 (-) 6.35 2051 – 2050 = 1 = 1 + (– 6.35) = – 5.35
03 2052 (-) 6.35 2052 – 2050 = 2 = 2 + (– 6.35) = – 4.35
04 2053 (-) 6.35 2053 – 2050 = 3 = 3 + (– 6.35) = – 3.35
05 2054 (-) 6.35 2054 – 2050 = 4 = 4 + (– 6.35) = – 2.35
06 2055 (-) 6.35 2055 – 2050 = 5 = 5 + (– 6.35) = – 1.35
07 2056 (-) 6.35 2056 – 2050 = 6 = 6 + (– 6.35) = – 0.35
08 2057 (-) 6.35 2057 – 2050 = 7 = 7 +(- 6.35) = + 0.65
09 2058 (-) 6.35 2058 – 2050 = 8 = 8 +(- 6.35) = + 1.65
10 2059 (-) 6.35 2059 – 2050 = 9 = 9 +(- 6.35) = + 2.65

As you notice from the table above, the buyer suffers a maximum loss (Rs. 6.35 in this case) till the spot price is equal to the strike price. However, when the spot price starts to move above the strike price, the loss starts to minimize. The losses keep getting minimized till a point where the trade neither results in a profit or a loss. This is called the breakeven point.

The formula to identify the breakeven point for any call option is –

B.E = Strike Price + Premium Paid

For the Bajaj Auto example, the ‘Break Even’ point is –

= 2050 + 6.35

= 2056.35

In fact let us find out find out the P&L at the breakeven point

= Max [0, (2056.35 – 2050)] – 6.35

= Max [0, (+6.35)] – 6.35

= +6.35 – 6.35

= 0

As you can see, at the breakeven point we neither make money nor lose money. In other words, if the call option has to be profitable it not only has to move above the strike price but it has to move above the breakeven point.


3.5 – Call option buyer’s payoff

So far we have understood a few very important features with respect to a call option buyer’s payoff; I will reiterate the same –

  1. The maximum loss the buyer of a call option experiences is, to the extent of the premium paid. The buyer experiences a loss as long as the spot price is below the strike price
  2. The call option buyer has the potential to realize unlimited profits provided the spot price moves higher than the strike price
  3. Though the call option is supposed to make a profit when the spot price moves above the strike price, the call option buyer first needs to recover the premium he has paid
  4. The point at which the call option buyer completely recovers the premium he has paid is called the breakeven point
  5. The call option buyer truly starts making a profit only beyond the breakeven point (which naturally is above the strike price)

Interestingly, all these points can be visualized if we plot the chart of the P&L. Here is the P&L chart of Bajaj Auto’s Call Option trade –


From the chart above you can notice the following points which are in line with the discussion we have just had –

  1. The loss is restricted to Rs.6.35/- as long as the spot price is trading at any price below the strike of 2050
  2. From 2050 to 2056.35 (breakeven price) we can see the losses getting minimized
  3. At 2056.35 we can see that there is neither a profit nor a loss
  4. Above 2056.35 the call option starts making money. In fact the slope of the P&L line clearly indicates that the profits start increasing exponentially as and when the spot value moves away from the strike

Again, from the graph one thing is very evident – A call option buyer has a limited risk but unlimited profit potential. And with this I hope you are now clear with the call option from the buyer’s perspective. In the next chapter we will look into the Call Option from the seller’s perspective.

Key takeaways from this chapter

  1. It makes sense to be a buyer of a call option when you expect the underlying price to increase
  2. If the underlying price remains flat or goes down then the buyer of the call option loses money
  3. The money the buyer of the call option would lose is equivalent to the premium (agreement fees) the buyer pays to the seller/writer of the call option
  4. Intrinsic value (IV) of a call option is a non negative number
  5. IV = Max[0, (spot price – strike price)]
  6. The maximum loss the buyer of a call option experiences is to the extent of the premium paid. The loss is experienced as long as the spot price is below the strike price
  7. The call option buyer has the potential to make unlimited profits provided the spot price moves higher than the strike price
  8. Though the call option is supposed to make a profit when the spot price moves above the strike price, the call option buyer first needs to recover the premium he has paid
  9. The point at which the call option buyer completely recovers the premium he has paid is called the breakeven point
  10. The call option buyer truly starts making a profit only beyond the breakeven point (which naturally is above the strike price).


  1. ameheta says:

    Dear sir,
    Can you explain how the premium of call options got diluted while nearing the expiry ? Is there ant formula ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Time decay besides other factors. We will talk about all of these things eventually in this module. Request you to stay tuned.

      • Prakash says:

        Hi I wanted to know if we buy 8600 PE at 15 ,75 quantity is the minimum required so how much I have to pay to get those shares and what ij case if it goes down to 5 rupees what will be the total loss .. can u pls reply on this as it will be really helpful

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          You will have to pay 15 * 75 = 1125. If it goes to 5, then the value will be 5*75 = 375 and your loss will be 750.

          • Pradeep says:

            Sir,I bought ACC AUG 1840 CE 1 LOT(400) @ 33 Rps and now would lkie to sell @ 40 today so please help me,what will be my profit and will I lose all my 13200 if I sell today as ACC CMP is 1816 now?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            You will make a profit of 7 per unit. Since lot size is 400, your total loss would be 400*7 = 2800

          • Vikash says:


            Just observed 1 point above so the same is posting below:-

            Question by one of the member – Sir,I bought ACC AUG 1840 CE 1 LOT(400) @ 33 Rps and now would lkie to sell @ 40 today so please help me,what will be my profit and will I lose all my 13200 if I sell today as ACC CMP is 1816 now?

            My view – I think he will make profit of 7*400=2800 if sell before expiry.
            Remarks – excluding question regarding ACC CMP 1816.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Yup, he basically makes the difference between the premium he paid and will receive, multiply that with lot size. So 40-33 = 7 and 7*400 = 2800.

          • Ivan says:

            Hi Karthik

            With regards to the earlier query from another member, please could you assist on my query.

            Sir,I bought ACC AUG 1840 CE 1 LOT(400) @ 33 Rps and now would lkie to sell @ 40 today so please help me,what will be my profit and will I lose all my 13200 if I sell today as ACC CMP is 1816 now?

            1. Is is possible for the premium to increase to 40 when the underlying value comes down to 1816?
            2. Should i look out for the increase in premium to consider that i will be in profit or should look out for the underlying value as well?
            3. Wouldn’t the total loss be 13200 as the underlying value is below the strike price?

            Thank you in advance

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            You bought the option at 33 and selling the same at 40, which means your profit will be Rs.7, multipled by 400 which is 2800. When you sell the option, you will get 40*400 = 16000, which includes the premium and the profit.

            1) Yes, for this to happen the volatility should also increase. This is explained later in the module
            2) If it is a short-term trade, focus on the premium
            3) No.

      • manuski says:

        I knew that CE and PE are to be bought, never sold for huge risk of loss is involved. So forget selling options altogether. If my view is price will go up, I have to buy CE and if my view is price will go down I have buy PE. Be it PE or CE, I have to buy of the strike price which is at the near by value of CMP. Expiry of current month options is always on the last Thursday that month. My questions are ” 1-Can I first buy and then sell PE or CE from last Friday of current to last Thursday of next month at any time in the live market hours?”
        2- ” I bought CE on last Friday of current month. Lot 75. Premium 150. I paid 11250. Mon, Tue, Wed. On Wed Premium is 250 on live chart of my that CE. Can I sell or not? If yes is my profit= 75(250-150)=75*100=7500 ( including brokerage+ charges)?
        3- If I have to day trading of options (only first buy then sell of PE and CE) I need lot size * current premium as capital. For buy today and sell on any day any time before expiry, do I need same capital to buy now? Means lot size * current premium of that option?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          1) Yes, you can.

          2) Yes, you can. Yes, you make 100 in profit

          3) Yes, it is the same. No additional margins for buying options. Check this – http://zerodha.com/z-connect/tradezerodha/margin-requirements/zerodha-margin-policies

          • anyket says:

            Dear Sir,
            If i am able to sell my option before expiry then what do you mean when you say ,” Here is an important point to note – you can exercise the option only on the day of the expiry and not anytime before the expiry.”

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Exercising an option is only on the day of expiry. However, you can buy and sell the premium at any time frequency.

          • Hits says:

            As you are saying “Exercising an option is only on the day of expiry. However, you can buy and sell the premium at any time frequency”….. that means we may not get profit sometime when even price of the stock increased but its premium price not…before expiry…!!!!

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Think of the premium in terms of buying and selling a stock. You make a profit as long as you buy at a lower price and sell at a higher price.

          • Avinash says:

            EX: A Bajaj AUTO option Contract lot of 500 CE strike price 2950 bought on on 15 march at premium 45, expiring on 28 march now premium got increased to 52 and spot price is 2951. If i sell my premium at 52 i will make of 7 rupees on premium and do i have anything to do with spot price at the time of selling my premium and also at the time of expiry date. If spot price increases to 3000 do i incur into any losses.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            No, you just have to sell it and pocket the premium of 52. Your profit will be 45-52 = 7.

      • dee says:

        how do i put stop loss i have brought options in normal orderand its in profit but i want to trail stop loss so i dont lose profit in case market turns so how do i put stop loss in this scenario
        2) howdo i put stop loss after i have brought options

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          You can do this by placing a regular stop loss and then you can keep modifying the limit price as and when the premium goes higher.

  2. khashu2010 says:

    Hi Karthik, Do we have facility in PI to see payoff charts since it’s required when we play on option strategies (straddle,strangle etc.) ?

  3. kieron says:

    How to calculate break even point in real market
    Which price take as strike price day starting share price or close price
    And which premium price I take month starting or take everyday different premium prices
    Plz explain it with real market example

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Breakeven point is = Strike + Premium paid. It is the same in theoretical and practical world.As I have mentioned in the chapter, selecting the strike price requires some amount of background knowledge on options theory, towards the end of this module you will get a fair understanding on the same.

  4. T RAMA DEVI says:

    Sir, Toaday I bought 8600CE at 75/- Pr. and sold at 85/- with a profit of 10/-per lot. Iam unable to understand, as per formula Break even pt. Strike price + Pr.( 8600+75) indicates nifty should trade above 8675 to be in profit. but I have already got 10/- profit per lot even though nifty not even crossed 8500. Pl. explain. Thanks


    • Suren says:

      I too had a same question similar to Rama Devi. Can you please explain ?

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        Rama / Suren – The break even point is applicable only if you hold the option till expiry. It is not applicable during the series.

    • Yella Reddy Mopuri says:

      Hi rama,
      You said you made a profit of Rs 10 per lot. so here if you have bought one lot what is your total profit ?. Is it 10 rupees or 75*10 = 750 rupees (taking lot size of nifty is 75).

  5. TSS KISHORE says:

    Dear Sir,
    Appreciated for your efforts in teaching for novice traders/investors, I have a doubt; As stated in the above chapter, on 26.03.15 Bajaj Auto 2050CE is at Rs.6.35/- while stock is trading at 2026.90 , today at 3.15pm stock trading at 2025.10 but 2050CE trading at Rs.50/- i.e a profit of Rs. 43.65 per lot. Hence, what is the role of breakeven point, as per rule buyer of 2050 CE option would be in profit only when stock price trades above 2050+6.35= 2056.35. Pl. clarify. Regards

    • TSS KISHORE says:

      Dear Sir, On my above query, I have noted that expiry dates differs, still my question remains same, if we take todays Nifty 8600 CE of April is low 72.50 and at 3.20Pm is Rs. 114.90. If I bought the same CE option when it is at a premium of 80/- and closed at 110/- for a profit of 30/- per lot at the same time Nifty is trading at 8492 Spot. Please clarify.

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        As I mentioned, during the series, the profitability depends on many other factors. We will get to that as we progress through this module. Request you to stay tuned 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Two things Kishore –

      1) As you have noted it correctly (in your next message) you are looking at two different expiry series. Hence the huge difference.

      2) The break-even point we are discussing in this chapter is ‘Upon Expiry‘. During the series besides the breakeven point there are other important factors that will determine the profitability of the trade. More on these factors when we take up option geeks.

  6. NARSIMHA says:

    sir,as they say to become ELITE TRADER

  7. NARSIMHA says:

    sir,as they say to become ELITE TRADER we should not watch TV&GET CONFUSED is it true,if it is how come we know why mkts r falling&rising r we should MUTE & watch clarify

  8. keshav says:

    Sir, is this bullish engulfing?

  9. keshav says:

    Thank u sir.,

  10. T RAMA DEVI says:

    Sir, Waiting for other chapters, when will be uploaded. Regards

  11. T RAMA DEVI says:


    April 7, 2015 at 7:33 am
    In Technical Analysis module Chapter 10 clause 10.4, Iam unable to understand this rule “As a rule of thumb, higher the number of days involved in a pattern the better it is to initiate the trade on the same day`. Is it to enter on day 3 i.e P3.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I had posted this answer earlier – re-posting the same again, also request you to keep the comments under the relevant chapters so that we can keep it well organised.

      It means, for example – a bullish engulfing pattern (2 day pattern) is more dependable than a hammer (1 day pattern) and a morning start (3 day pattern) is more dependable than a bullish engulfing (2 day pattern). So higher the number of days in a pattern the higher the conviction to trade. Please note this is just mu personal observation while trading.

  12. Kaushik says:

    Let’s say, i buy tata steel call option of Rs350 April series @ premium of 10 Rs & I sell tata steel call option of 370 April series @ premium of 10 Rs.
    For me it looks win win for me. I get premium squared. If it goes above 370 my profit is locked to 20 Rs. If it goes to 330, the 370 buyer will not exercise option of buying. So will I for 340 option. For intermediate price e.g. 360, I get 10 Rs.
    Is my understanding correct?What will be the other risks on this trade?
    What will happen if these contracts are not squared before expiry? Also what are ways for a buyer to exit contract or what will buyer has to do so that his option of not buying is executed if the price goes in opposite direction of call?

    • KAUSHIK says:

      Btw, the premiums I mentioned are hypothetical. Though there could be some cost covering when I sell & buy option of different cost in same series. For example The CE 350 is @ 9.25 & CE #370 is @ 3.3 so effectively my risk is only for 5.95 *500 = ~ 3000. But I am not sure about all risks involved in this trade. How a buyer can decide whether to execute his option & how will he do it?

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        There are many things involved here kaushik – however I’m really glad you are able to think in terms of an option strategy. Request you to please stay tuned…we will discuss all this and more shortly.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Kaushik – if 350 Call option is trading at Rs.10, then there is no way 370 Call option will also trade at Rs.10. This is because of many factors involved in option pricing….we will soon discuss option pricing in this module. Also, the strategy that you are talking about is called the ‘Bull Call Spread’…again we will discuss this stratergy along with many others in the next module i.e ‘Option Strategies’.

      You can buy a call option now and sell it within few minutes if you wish…so exciting an option is not a problem provided a counterparty is available.

  13. KAUSHIK says:

    If I buy some call option @ 5 RS & hold it till expiry. Lets say @ expiry the value is 2 Rs. or 8 Rs. Will I get that money?

  14. Aarti Sareen says:

    Sir, how to select a strike price? e.g on 1st May,15 I decide to buy a call option of June 26,15 and the option is open then do it make sense to buy a call option of second month and also please suggest the criterion to select a strike price. How much difference of strike price to the spot price is safe?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Aarti – Selecting the right strike to trade is a huge task and a very critical task. We will take it up in this module shortly. Please stay tuned till then 🙂

  15. Vicky says:

    “The profit from this call option seems to increase exponentially.”
    Shouldn’t this be linear?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If options are linear then the gains and losses should be equal. However this is not the case when you buy an options. When you buy the loss is restricted to the extent of premium paid and gains can be unlimited. Hence one tends to say that there is a scope for exponential gains. I agree mathematically ‘exponential’ may not be the right word to use – but its just to drive the point across.

      • shahofblah says:

        I think in the interest of precision and correctness you should not use the word exponential, simply for the fact that derivatives do exist whose values vary exponentially relative to the value of the underlying(perhaps we’ll see these and stuff like CDOs in a future module?) therefore it’s ambiguous.

        Also you mentioned limited liability but unlimited potential profit – same applies in direct equity, too.

  16. The line that claims the exponential increase in profit when the spot price moves higher is clearly misleading. The profit actually increase in a linear fashion rather than in exponential form. Please rectify.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Options are non linear instruments Batchu. Futures are linear – meaning for every 1 point move in the underlying your P&L reacts by 1 point.

      • shahofblah says:

        It’s ‘linear’ even if the value of the derivative changes by k points for every 1 point change in the underlying.

  17. the_fool_on_the_hill says:

    If I buy a call option at say Rs. 10, can I set a stoploss higher than 10, as in say Rs. 20, so that whenever the option premium reaches double its value, the trigger is activated and the option premium is sold? What happens when I set a stoploss of a call buying option higher than the buying price in Pi?

  18. Sunil says:

    Hello Karthik,
    July Contract for Nifty at Strike Price 8600 trading at Premium of Rs.64/-
    With a bullish perspective, I can buy a CE of the above contract of say 4 lots, thereby 64*100=6400 will be my F&O obligation amount which will be debited from my A/c at EOD.

    But can I also short it for intraday trading just like we do for Nifty Futures and also hold the short position for a few days?? And if I can short the above contract at the above price, will I become a Seller of the Option Contract and get 64*100=6400 credited to my account or will I still have the same F&O obligation and 64*100=6400 will be debited from my account at EOD ?? If it is possible to short the above contract, will it be better to buy a PE instead of shorting a CE?? I am confused. Please help.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      On one hand you buy the position and on the other hand if you sell it….it leaves you with a net obligation of 0, meaning you do not have an exposure to the instrument. So you cannot do this. If your view point is this – Nifty will cross 8600 by expiry but over the next few days it will correct before crossing the 8600 then in my opinion you are better of buying calls and shorting futures.

  19. Sunil says:

    hello karthik,
    my apologies for confusing u. I didn’t mean to buy and sell the same option. That obviously would nullify everything. What I meant was , what happens when i sell a CE ? In the above example, if i sold 4 lots of a CE (the way we short a futures contract) trading at 64 premium for a 8600 Strike Price, will my account get credited with 64*100=6400 at the end of day due to premium collected from the buyer? And suppose I buy the same CE tomorrow at a premium of 60, in that case 60*100=6000 will be debited from my account at end of day? Thereby causing a profit of Rs.400/-. Till now, I have only bought a CE or PE. Never sold one as I am confused how the payment settlement works. Please clarify my doubts.
    Thanks & Regards,

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Oh yes, this is exactly how it works 🙂

      So when you short options your account would be credited and when you buy it back money would be debited. The difference is what you end up making. Also, this is pretty the same way long trade works – when you are long you buy first and sell later…and when you short you sell first and buy later…its just that the order is reversed. Either ways the Profit or loss you make is the difference between the debit and credit.

      • aehsan4004 says:

        can u kindly elaborate more on the shorting of CE concept ?
        continuing same example given by mr.sunil .
        in first scenario , he sells CE at 64 and buys back next day at 60 … thus earning 400 profit.
        similarly if his buying price is more than selling , he will make a loss ….upto here i got the idea.

        what happens when he doesn’t buy back and expiry date is reached ? kindly explain pls

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Well you seem to have got the concept completely 🙂

          On expiry day if the option is worthless then it will have a price of 0. So you would have sold at 64 and exchange will assume you are buying back at 0, hence your profit will be 64. In case of any other positive value for option then your profits will decrease accordingly. For example if its 15, your profits will be 64-15, if its 30 ..profits will be 64-30….and its its 80 then you will incur a loss 64 – 80.

          • Rishab says:

            As you said we can short the options till expiry, As on expiry every option nears to Zero or becomes zero, isn’t shorting options then always profitable, like if we short 2-3 days before expiry and on expiry it going to become zero, so buying back on expiry date. Please clarify

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Only OTM options goto 0 (or expire worthless). All In the money options have a non zero value.

  20. sarath says:

    i have a doubt iv= spot-strike,when i see the option chain in nse website this formula not working — nifty spot at 8567
    8800 ce iv =11.16 ,8750ce iv=11.20,etc please explain what it is

  21. amogh says:

    hello sir i m new to option… n have just signed up with zerodha… my question is today say nifty is at 8415, and i m bullish on it , so i predict the mrkt to go up so i buy a call option .. nifty trading @ 8415, i buy CE option with stike price 8450 and in return pay the premium for the same which is say 75 , so my queery is what will happen to my premium of 75 when nifty shoots from 8415 to 8435 , will my premium of 75 also move up i.e say 79 for that instance.. or will it remain at 75 only and will move up only once nifty moves above 8450 … bcoz i have purchased a call option with strike price at 8450 .. plz eplain..

    • Sunil says:

      Hi AMOGH,
      The premium changes as and when Nifty value changes. If Nifty goes up, the premium goes up and vice versa. How much the premium will change wrt the change in Nifty depends on the delta of the strike price. The change in premium is directly proportional to the change in Nifty. You can book profit when the premium goes up just like u do when the price of a stock goes up. Hope that answers ur query. Happy trading.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If Nifty moves up, the call option will also move up..to what extent it will move depends on the Delta of the option.

      • Sunil says:

        Hi Karthik.,
        U have taught us soooo many things. So I consider it my responsibility to pass on the knowledge gained from u to others. After all, knowledge increases by sharing. 🙂

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Sunil, I’m very happy to hear this ! Have you read this – http://zerodha.com/z-connect/queries/stock-and-fo-queries/introducing-varsity

          It talks about our rational behind starting Varsity.

          • Sunil says:

            Yes Karthik, I had read that article. I’m really glad to see the effort you guys take to educate people. And best part is that you are giving the knowledge for free at a time when hardly anything comes without a price. Won’t be surprised if some day we also have to pay for the air we breathe. Lol. Zerodha not just offers an amazing and low cost trading experience , but also connects well with people. That’s what sets Zerodha apart. Keep up the good work. God bless the team.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Thank you so much for the kind words Sunil 🙂

          • Sunil says:

            Good day Karthik,
            I need a little help from you. I am doing intraday nifty options trading and I want to develop a strategy for the same. I tried looking up online. But didn’t find anything relevant. Could you please help me with it.
            Thanks in advance.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Sunil – please do let me know if you need anything specific.

          • Sunil says:

            Hello Karthik,
            I want to know how to analyze nifty chart and what things to consider to decide whether to go for CE or PE….. And what strike price to trade…..Is there some intraday trading strategy for nifty options?
            My question might seem too generic, but I myself am confused what to look for…. Technical Indicators and candlestick patterns don’t seem to be helping much while I’m trading options in intraday….. Kindly advise…

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Sunil – you should not be looking at technical charts of options, it is pointless. Will be including 1 or 2 case studies towards the end of this module which I suppose will help you get a better picture.

          • Sunil says:

            Thanx Karthik. I will wait for it. As of now I am trading the OTM options for CE/PE and looking at the price action from the option charts, I’m determining my entry, stop loss, target and whether to go for CE or PE. In case I bought CE, and my CE stop loss order is about to get triggered, I am placing a SL buy order for PE and vice versa. This strategy seems to be doing fine till now. But I want something better. The Option Strategies I found online are all for holding the position till expiry. Nothing for intraday. Anyways, will wait for your future modules.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            In fact most of the options are designed for expiry. The next module is all about Options strategy…hopefully it should give you an insight into devloping something for intraday as well.

  22. amogh says:

    yea.. thanks sunil… my queery got cleared..

  23. amogh says:

    thankz karthik….

  24. madhu nair says:

    hey karthik, i was always under the impression that the option on expiry day trails to zero. the HDFC CE1180 ended the day at 12 rs odd. why would any one hold on to options after expiry?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Madhu – Only ATM and OTM options expire worthless..but HDFC closed at 1193 yesterday…so 1180 CE had an intrinsic value of 13.

  25. madhu nair says:

    blooper!!! missed that….ok, so from the above e.g of HDFC if i chose a strike and am confident that the spot would be above that on expiry by say 13 points as it was then, would it be prudent to buy the option when its trading at a price below 13 and then sell it when it hits the price equivalent to its intrinsic value ( i.e 13)….of course this is based on the premise that the stock will not dip below 13 points to its strike 11 eight zero.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Madhu – selecting a strike such that you gain the most form the expected outcome is the most trickiest job of the options trader. Towards the end of this module, I will attempt to explain this…request you to please stay tuned 🙂

  26. Pranav J says:

    hi karthik ,
    great forum.
    for eg: if I bought nifty 8100 call @142 CMP 8002, my doubt is even if the spot reaches the strike price I will make a profit of 98/- rs per share but i’m paying 142 premium per share ,so will 8142 be my breakeven pt, please clarify.
    My frnd said it does not matter if spot reaches that strike price i can book profits as premium increases , and square it off.
    please clarify possibly with an example of how premiums change with time.
    Thanks in advance

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, your breakeven point is 8142. However the breakeven point matters only if you intend to hold till expiry. In case the spot reaches the strike and there is ample time to expiry then like your friend mentioned, your premium is likely to be much higher than 142.

      • Prakash says:

        Dear karthik
        I have a small doubt …plzz tell me can we earn profit on premium even if the market price doesn’t reach the break-even…???

        Eg- suppose if I buy NIFTY 12000 CALL at 5rs …so my breakeven should be 12000+5=12005
        So if the market price do not cross 12005 but premium increases to 10 rs….
        Then in this case what will be my profit or loss if it has not reached expiry???

      • Prakash says:

        Dear karthik

        I think the break even in the above case should be the strike price+premium so it should be 8100+142=8242
        Kindly correct me if I m wrong ???
        M bit confused here ??
        Plzz reply to this

  27. Manish Bothra says:

    is it possible that the MP of the stock goes up but at a particular strike price on the same day for buying call the premium price goes down?

  28. Durjoy says:

    On exercising a call,do the shares need to be sold immediately?Or can they be sold later?

  29. Sunil Tyagi says:

    The commission paid is not included in calculation of Break Even point.
    The break Even formula should be modified as below :

    B.E = Strike Price + Premium Paid + Commissions

  30. mathew says:

    I got a little confused after reading the comments.

    1. If I buy an option today, can I sell it before the expiry date?

  31. Deepali says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I am beginner in options. Its very nice information about options. I have below queries:
    1. How to select Strike price? U mentioned in few comments that u will take it up and add about it in this module. but I am unable to find about this. Can you please elaborate this?
    2. About option strategies, U mentioned one or two comments u will give one or two scenarios for better understanding of option trading and strategy..Also I am not able to find Option Strategy module…

    Thanks in advance!

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The next chapter (chapter 22) – will upload next week) is all about strike selection.

      In chapter 23 I will discuss few case studies – simple option trades and the rational behind. Hopefully this will help.

  32. Anurag says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Wonderful, truly amazing an initiative the whole Varsity is. IMHO, Its one of the best resources for uninitiated aspirational traders/Quants to get started.

    Just one thing specific to the Options – Everywhere you have indicated 3 scenarios while taking a Call Buying decision. (lemme take Ajay-Venu’s example).

    1. Price of Land can go higher than 500,000, say 800,000
    2. Price of land goes lower, say 300,000
    3. Stays same @ 500,000.

    Mind you, the premium was 100,000 to start with, right ?

    Now, you have indicated that under Scenario 1, Ajay stands to gain. i.e, if price of Land upon expire is > 500,000(> Strike Price).

    Should scenario 1 be sharpened to say that Ajay stands to gain when {Land Price > (Strike+Premium) } ?? I mean, what happens if Land price increases from 500,00 but only till 575,000 ? In that case, Ajay pays = 100,000(Premium) + 500,000(Strike Price) but his in-flow will be only 575,00. Doesn’t he lose 25,000 in this case though it meet criteria of Scenario 1 ?

    Maybe, I am missing a very basic point while raising this question. Do help me get clarity.


    P.S: Keep up the great, GREAT work !!!

    • Anurag says:

      Got it by getting to the B.E point later in the chapter. 🙂

      Ignore the question. But still keep up the great work !!


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Anurag – Thanks for kind words 🙂

      Yes, it does make sense. However the idea at this stage is to slowly introduce the concept. Eventually I have discussed the Premium angle as well.

  33. Yogesh Rajput says:

    Hi, I was trying to calculate Total margin required using SPAN calculator. My question is whenever I am checking margin for any Buy (either CE or PE), margin required is shown as zero. Why is this so?

  34. Bibin says:

    Sir supose nifty was at 7820..i bought 7900ce with premium of 90…nifty has reached 7860 day high premium at 150 can i squre off my position and book profit..or do i need to wait until nifty to toucch7900 to book profit..

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can certainly book profits and get out of the trade.

      • Ram says:

        What about Exercising the option. I dont see it anywhere. As you said we cant exercise the option untill its expiry date. How can you square off before the expiry date.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          It is assumed that you wish to exercise the option if you let your ITM option expire (meaning you do not square off the position on expiry).

  35. Rajan Kombu says:

    Just no where I have seen such a simple and wonderful tutorial to teach Options. Excellent!!!! Keep Rocking!!!! 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Merci Beaucoup …meaning ‘thanks a lot’ in French!

      • Arijit Banerjee says:

        🙂 🙂
        I don’t see our beloved Sir, instead I see an EDHEC grad here 😀 😀

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Ah, EDHEC is very close to my heart! It helped me see the financial markets from a completely different perspective 🙂

          • Arijit Banerjee says:

            🙂 🙂
            as u advised me earlier, I am on the way to pursuing cmt and cfa now.
            these give me a huge insight to develop how financial market works. And my every aspiration started from this varsity module.
            It’s beyond my words how much I respect and how much Zerodha, Varsity, You, Nithin Sir means to me ??.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Thanks for the very kind words, Arijit. We feel privileged to receive so much love and respect 🙂

  36. Shubham says:

    In the given example, even if the price increases from 2026.9 but stays below 2050, loss of 6.35 per share occurs.

    Won’t it make more sense if one buys futures (cover/bracket) instead of options?

    I’m asking this as it was mentioned that options are more attractive choice.
    (I appreciate your efforts, plz dont kill me)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well the whole deal with options is that there is protection on the downside and we clearly know what is the loss in the worst case..since loss is pre defined, hence the preference of options over futures.

      Also, I suppose between 2026 and 2050, the loss is being minimized as we approach the breakeven point.

      And don’t worry, I will not kill you 🙂

  37. Shriram B says:

    Hi ,
    Just a quick query.what all factors affect the open price of a option. Is there any technique to guess it. There is a huge gap in previous day close and present day open. Which we don’t see in equity.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The opening price of an option depends upon how the underlying opens….and this really depends on the overnight news flow!

      Having said this, do note certain illiquid options do tend to gap up/down.

  38. Sooraj J Mishra says:

    Hello Sir,
    I want to ask you that suppose I bought 2 lot Nifty 7900CE @ 80 and holding it till expiry. Now on expiry day Nifty is trading @ 8000. that means I can execute my contract since I am in profitable condition. but I could not understand how to execute the contract? I mean what happens on expiry day? Do ‘executing the contract’ means selling 2 lot that I have been holding ? Please clear my doubt although looks silly…!!!!

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sooraj – In a profitable situation like this you can choose to let the contracts ‘expire’ (meaning you do nothing) and the exchange will ensure you are settled to the extent of your profitability. In other words if you are supposed to get Rs.100 as profit, exchange mechanism will ensure you get this money to your trading account.

      Alternatively if you want to go ahead and sell it yourself, you can do that as well.

  39. Vivek says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I want to ask, I purchased CE 8100 @6.80 with 28JAN expiry.My order type is “NRML”. Now NIFTY is going down NIFTY is @7640, so obvious CE 8100 becomes 5.90. So am in loss right now. But till expiry I have time & hope NIFTY will gain. Suppose NIFTY will trend to 7800/7850 on date 18 JAN, Call which i bought become to 10. So I would get profit of Rs 3.20 per lot. At that moment on 18 JAN can I sell the call option directly or shall need to convert from order type “NRML” to “MIS” and then sell?.
    am confused on this. Please assist.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you would be in profit of Rs.3.2 (in case the option goes to 10). You can square it off from the position using NRML…no need to convert to MIS.

  40. kashyap says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I am beginner in Option trading.
    This is really a good material for beginner.
    But I have a doubt that when will I make profit? Means when premium goes up OR strike price goes up.
    Please clarify. Thanks in advance

    • ShreyaDR says:

      When premium goes up. Strike price will not move like premium. In equities you have choice of many stocks like Infy, SBI, Reliance & so on… while in Options if you take one stock e.g. infy which trading at 1160 right now….it has strike prices with a gap of 20 rupees….1180, 1200, 1220, 1140,1120,1100 like that…..each has different premiums…..all the strike price have two options again Call (CE) & Put (PE)…..so if you are bullish on infy you can buy call 1160 or 1180 or above and if you are bearish you can ‘BUY’ put options 1160,1140,1120 & below. farther the strike price…moneyness changes….and so the option greeks also. e.g. now u r bullish on infy and bought 1160 call option….if spot price of infy moves up from 1160….its premium will also move up…. provided it is ATM or ITM option and not so near the expiry.

      Am i explained right Karthik?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Strike price is a constant and it does not move. You make money on the premiums.

  41. kashyap says:

    Ok thank you SHREYADR and KARTHIK. Now i got it that we make money when premium goes up and we lose money when premium goes down. right?

  42. kashyap says:

    Now If I buy a lot of 800 of CENTURYTEX MAR 500CE at the Rs.16 premium (my total premium is 800*16=12800), after few hours premium is increased to Rs.20, so If I do square off at the profit of 20-16=4 Rs, how much total value I get?

  43. kashyap says:

    If premium goes high and i am in profit as premium, but breakeven point is not reached then what happened? Am i in loss or profit?

  44. ShreyaDR says:

    1) u r into gross profit of Rs.3200/- i.e. excluding brokerage n taxes.

    2) Which break-even point you are talking about?

  45. kashyap says:

    Hellow SHREYADR,
    2) I am talking about, in the case of i have mentioned above example (CENTURYTEX MAR 500CE), if I have bought lot qty=800 premium=16 strike price=500. So my breakeven point value 500+16=516, right?. Now, after few hours premium goes to 20 and spot price is 510 then in this situation am i in profit or in loss?

  46. ShreyaDR says:

    Technically speaking 516 is ur breakeven point. but traders don’t trade like that…they just trade premiums….keeping target and stop loss in mind.

    secondly premium will definitely rise from 16 to some upper value when spot price moves from 500 to 510….but it may not rise by Rs.10 (510-500) and become 26 (16+10) because of the option greeks comes into picture.

  47. animesh says:

    Hi Karthik,
    When I make a profit due to the increase in premium, i.e., when i buy a CE and later on sell that CE back for a higher premium before expiry, will it be like, I would be obliged to exercise my selling CE on the expiry date?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, it simply means that you bought an option by paying a certain premium and sold it later for a higher amount and pocketed the difference. That’s about it. When you buy – sell before expiry then its just a play on premium…exercise of options is applicable only upon expiry.

  48. anil says:

    Hi Karthik,
    Is it possible to first sell a call option and then buy it back at a lesser premium making a profit

  49. kashyap says:

    If I bought 2000 lot size of Justdial MAR 750 CE today with premium 25 (2000*25=50000). After few hours premium is 23. If i book loss then how much total loss i receive?

  50. kashyap says:

    And If i leave this position for expiry, then what?

  51. pradeep says:

    Sir,I am new to f&o. My question is if I have to trade in options, should I have the entire
    Margin for call buying or should I pay only the premium. For suppose if I want to
    Buy bhel Apr220 call at 5 premium, if I have 50000/- in my trading account ,can I purchase 10000 shares with that amount or should I have the entire margin for buying the call option.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Pradeep – When buying options (either call or Put) you only need to pay the premium amount required. But if you want to short options (either call or Put), then you need to pay margin amount.

      In your example the amount you will have to pay for 220 Call option is 5 * BHEL lot size.

  52. pradeep says:

    Sir, if bhel 220 april (lot=2000) CE premium is rs 5. If a lot of bhel is rs35640. If I have 50000rs in my trading account. Can I purchase three lots with the amount that I have in my account or I should have
    the entire marginal cost(3*35640) in my account to purchase the call.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Lot size of BHEL is 2000. Premium is 5, hence to buy 1 lot of BHEL you would need 2000 * 5 = 10,000/-. Since you have 50K in your account you can buy 5 lots.

  53. Sooraj Jogendra Mishra says:

    Dear Karthik Sir,
    I want to know about stoploss for option premiums..suppose I purchased 2 lots of nifty 7900 PE @ 56 with a stoploss 50 on BTST basis. later in the next day Nifty open gap up and Nifty premium opened @ 29 then what happens to my stoploss?? will my order get executed on 50 or 29?? Plz reply.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      When you purchase a put option, you want the prices to fall, hence your SL should be higher than 56 and not below.

      • Sooraj Jogendra Mishra says:

        Sir you actually didn’t get me.. I mean I have 2 lots of 7900 Put options @ premiums 56..My intention is market would fall tomorrow so I held them so that premium go above my purchase price…and I kept my stoploss to 50..
        but what happens is next day market opens gap up then definitely my premium would fall…and suppose gap up was so sharp that put option premium opened @29 then would my stopploss trigger @ 50..??
        I hope you get me..

  54. Thamil says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I have bought 8200CE at premium of 7(7*75 = 525 ), Now the premium rate is 14.
    1. If i squared off now, theoretically i will get profit of 7*75=525. But technically there is no profit/loss, since my premium amount is tallied there(525 – 525 buying price). right ?
    2. if i squared off at 15 i will get profit of 8*75 = 600 and technically 75(i.e., 600 – 525 buying price) ?
    3. Let’s assume i will squared off at premium of 6. Is’t possible to squared off less than entered premium ? If yes, then will i get my premium amount back with calculation of 1*75 loss and 6*75 remaining balance ? Again if yes, i don’t understand logic here, If i squared off my position less than the premium which i bought then i will get 6*75 but if i am in profit premium of 15 i will got only 1*75 profit(i.e., (8*75 = 600) – (7*75 = 525 buying price) )… big confusion, pls clarify ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You will be making a profit…thing about it as buying a stock at 7 and now its trading at 15…so you have more than doubled you money here. If you square off at 6, then you will make a loss….as you bought something at 7 and sold it at 6…so a loss of Rs.1.

      • Thamil says:

        Thanks for your prompt reply.

        Let me ask one more question to get more clarity.
        Bought at 7 and sold it at 6.. so a loss of Rs.1 –> yes i understood and here is my qus… is’t mean that remaining 6*75 will get credit into my account ? (because i read somewhere the premium amount is not refundable once contract made, so pls clarify).

        Bought at premium 7 and sold it at 8, so a profit of 1.Rs. How much amount will get credit into my account, whether 8*75 or 1*75 ? (Again the same question, because of premium confusion).

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, the premium amount will be credited to your account. It will not be refunded if you hold it to expiry, but in this case you are trading the premium.

          In first case you get 6 * 75 in your account…and in the 2nd you will get 8 * 75….the credit will reflect by end of day.

          • Thamil says:

            Thanks a lot and Thanks in advance.

            Let me ask few more questions about expiry, (This confusion came, because the spot price and premium is not equally increasing in real time, as explined in this article)

            I bought 8200CE at 7 when spot price is 7900.
            And assume,
            1) The spot price is 8200 or below at the time of expiry, then the premium will become big ZERO and i will get nothing, right ?

            2) The spot price is 8200 or below, premium is something around 87 and i EXIT explicitly before the auto expiry, then i will get premium*lot_size, right ?

            (Below qus, because of big confusion – who is the hero spot price or premium?, Please answer profit/loss and the corresponding amount)

            3) The spot price is 8206 and premium is 100 at the time of auto expiry then what will i get ?

            4) The spot price is 8206 and premium is 100 and i EXIT explicitly before the auto expiry then what will i get ?

            5) Now fortunately the spot price hits 8300 and the premium is 160 at the time of auto expiry, what will i get ?

            6) The same flow, spot price hits 8300 and the premium is 160 and i will EXIT explicitly before the auto expiry, what will i get ?

            Hope, i am not confusing you 😉

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            1) If you buy 8200CE for 7, then you will make a profit only if the spot moves above 8207, below 8200 you will not get anything.

            2) Yes

            3) Spot influences premium. If spot expires at 8206, and if you continue to hold the option to expiry, then you will get only 6 as 6 is the true value of the option


            5) 8300 – 8200 = 100

            6) 160

            So basically you can exit before expire , then you will get the last traded price of the premium. If you choose to hold till expiry then you will get the intrinsic value of the option.

  55. SOMANI says:


  56. sarath says:

    I bought voltas 340 ce jun, its going down, now its below my buying price, i dont want to book loss, but confident it is bullish, but expiry of june month is coming near.
    So question is can i hold on this option? since if i am bulish on this stock.
    can i carry forward to next month expiry?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, as long as you are convinced you can. But remember a wise man once said “Markets can be irrational longer than you are solvent”.

  57. Nil's says:

    Hey Karthik,
    Awesome contents. Thank you for enlightening every nuke doubts.
    On option expiry either CE or PE, the cash settlement takes place between buyer and seller. But in the case of premium how the settlement happens ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Upon expiry, the premium of all ITM options are settled in cash. The value of the premium will depend on the intrinsic value of the option. Do note, all other options will go worthless.

      • Nil's says:

        My question was before expiry if we square off our position, our P&L would be the change in premium. How does the pay off depending upon premium take place ? Hope you get my query !

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, if you wish to square off the position before expiry then your P&L is basically the premium differential. The payoff before expiry would therefore depend on the greeks and the way they change.

          • Nil's says:

            On Equity, Buy on Less and Sell on High. Profit settles between buyer and seller counterparts.
            On Option CE (square off before exercise) Buy on Less premium and Sell on High premium. Profit settles between option buyer and seller counterparts for the same strike price.
            Correct me If m wrong.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Absolutely, that’s the way it would work.



  59. Raju Shinde says:

    Sir, Completed this chapter again. And many questions are solved after reading Q&A section. Thanks for such wonderful effort to teach.

  60. Vishu says:


    I would thank you for helping us understand the tricks and trade of different trading mechanisms.

    I have gone through zerodha varsity for call and put options. However need to brush up on delta, theta and other later chapters.

    I am interested in placing an order for a buy call option for HCLT 28-jul CE, strike at 730, 1 LOT-700, underlying – 739.85, premium – 12.45.

    So please clarify on the below points and correct me if I am wrong.

    1.) The current premium is 12.45, so as per the guide will Zerodha be charging only premium multiply lot, i.e. 12.45 x 700 = 8715.

    2.) So, as the strike is at 730, anything above 730 (ex. 740, 750) is considered a profit trade, and any below 730 then I tend to loose the premium i.e. 8715.

    3.) Expiry for the above is 28-Jul, if for until 27th, the underlying is 750, can I square off or conclude the trade; or is it essential that I keep it until 28th itself, i.e. expiry.

    Please help me on the above points as I am excited to know and educate myself.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, premium amount payable is 12.45*700, and this is paid to the option seller, and not Zerodha
      2) Yes, you will lose the premium as long as the spot remains at or below 730
      3) Yes, you can exit the position whenever you want

  61. VISHU says:

    Karthik avre, thanks for the confirmation. i missed out on HCLT, which made spot high of 747.

    1 more question : Can we carry forward the contract(f & o) to next month. if yes than can you tell me whats the procedure.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can buy Aug/Sept contract today and hold this till expiry, this is as good as a carry forward.

      • VISHU says:

        1.) but supposedly, say the Aug contract CE i had taken, did not meet the target, then can i carry forward this contract to september.
        2.) for intraday or short term, as you have described in the later chapters that one can earn on difference in premium, say on the above case where the premium difference was 22.95 – 12.45 = 10.5, where 22.95 is current premium for the above contract. so the profit is 10.5 * 700 (1 lot)=7350. is that right?
        Sir, pardon my questionnaire, its just that i want to know the concept thoroughly before jumping in. i am enjoying reading the chapters and respect the time you give to us by answering every queries.

        Thanks again, Guruji of Zerodha.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          1) No you cannot as the Aug contract expires in Aug. However you can close the Aug contract (or let it expire) and buy/sell the Sept contract. This is also called rollover.

          2) Yes

          Please feel free to ask as many questions as you want, you need to be knowledgeable before you place your first trade! Good luck.

          • VISHU says:

            Sir Couple more queries.
            1.) in the above scenario if i wanted to hold CE sell contract for short term or square off – intraday, and if the premium is reduced from 12.45 to 10, and i had to close the contract then the loss would be 12.45-10 = 2.45*700(1 lot)=1715. is that right?
            2.) suppose i am bearish on the stock for intraday, say on above scenario where the stock would have gone down from 12.45 to 10. Can i place PE option for an ATM strike. here the difference i.e.12.45-10=2.45*700(1 lot)=1715 is considered a profit.

            Thank you for humble advise on option strategies in module 2, have read the option modules. need to go through strategies. i understand the above scenario is something you would not advise us newbies, however i understand and just wanting to clear some thoughts.
            lastly, I am reading this chapters in july 2016, wherein this chapters were written a year back, your calculation were bang on when it was said “Nifty could be at 8600 with 40% chance in july 2016”.

            Thanks again..

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            1) If you have sold the option, and the premium falls, then you make a profit and not a loss.

            2) If you are bearish you can either buy a Put or sell a call option

            Good luck and happy trading 🙂

  62. SaikiranGarapati says:

    Hi Sir,

    I have a following doubts in options:
    1) what is the maximum time allowed to buy call option buy on the expiry day? I tried to place a order at 3:28.it says rejected even though i tried to place a Market Order?, Please tell me order allowing time levels at Zerodha and Exchange side?
    2)For an Instance, on the Expiry date (28-Jul-2016) HDFC 1400CE the Premium was at 0.40 at 3:28 and seller was also ready in the system at 0.40, Stock was at 1406 and closed at 1402.15, In this case if my 1400CE Order with premium of 0.40 executed means,what will be my profit and losses? since it has closed above strike price(1400), Will i get remaining amount (my premium is 0.40, Strike price is 1400 so 1400.40, stock closed at 1402.15, So the diff b/w 1402.15 – 1400.40= 1.75) or not?
    I hope you understands my query,if not feel free to ask me again?
    Please tell me your views on this please?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Technically the order should go have gone through, did you have enough funds?

      2) You will have the difference in spot and strike minus the premium paid as your profits….i.e 1402.15 – 1400 – 0.4 = 1.75

      • SaikiranGarapati says:

        Thanks for your answer Sir,.
        1)Can you tell me when closing price generally displays in the system and On Expiry day?
        2) What price settlement will happen, Is it on LTP(3:30 PM on expiry day) or Closed priced on that day?
        3)There are some cases i have seen at 3:30 LTP was some price and closed price was different So what will be reason for this? What transactions will happen in 3:30 to 4:00?

        Please tell me your views on the above queries..

  63. SaikiranGarapati says:

    If i buy a call option at 3:28,If i do not square off,but closing is more than my strike price and premium,what percentage of fine exchange will put for that transaction?

  64. Manowar says:

    Suppose yesterday I paid Rs 3500 as premium of option @0.05 lot size 6800. If after 1-2 days the value of the premium rise to @0.10. then in that case .Can i sell the option premium to get instant profit before expiry..? will i get net profit of Rs 3500 ..??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can do that. No problem with that.

      • Manowar says:

        Will there be any kind of risk of loss like unlimited loss after selling the purchased option. Actually I m very new to option trading so kindly answer as simple as u can

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          No, when you sell an purchased option you are essentially closing the position. So you are out of the market.

  65. suneeta Joshi says:

    Dear Karthik first of all thanks for making these complex things so easy for us. I have a quaestion here, suppose i create a sell position of call option of ABC comp, strike price 100 rs, primum 5 rs, lot 1 that consist 100 nos. So i will get 500 nos as premium to be credited to my account. and after 10 min if i find that there is no change in premium. So if i close my position on same premium after 10 min then what will be my profit? thanks

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you happen to buy it back at the same price i.e Rs.5, then you will have no profit no loss. Of course, you will lose brokerage and all the applicable charges and taxes.

  66. Gautam Prakash says:

    He guys it was my first time buying an call option of JPASSOCIATE. I had bought the 15CE at 0.05 per lot which is going to expire this thursday. Any Idea what should I do since I couldn’t exit this position?
    1) If I square it on the expiry day how much would I get?
    2)If I just leave it to expire what would happen and how much would I get?

  67. Shovkuma says:

    Dear sir, what is the actual thing we do when we say exercise an option?
    Means in our bajaj auto example if before say 5 days before expiry apot price touched 2080 and if i say want to exercise option means what i have to do…do i have to purchase real shares to exercise it?

    Second thing if when my call option ITM and if i sell it before expiry..then difference in premium is the only profit that i earned?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Exercise an option means that you hold the option which you have bought to expiry. You can choose to close your position before expiry this is just termed as booking your P&L.

      All equity derivative contracts in India are cash settled – so it is not required to purchase shares.

      Yes, you earn the difference in premium.

  68. Bhaskar says:

    Hi sir,

    Just having query

    If today I buy call option in sbi strike price 300 price 1.60 exp 29dec 2016

    If sbi move till 270-280 still I can square off this option or not?

    Also we have to square it off at market price?

  69. Bhaskar says:

    Any option buy and then square of with zerodha is great full

  70. Khan says:

    I went through the entire module and was very confused although I understood around 40-50%. Read it the second time, things started becoming a little clearer than earlier because I made sure that I understood each and every line of yours but still had some confusions. I still understood only around 60-70%. Nevertheless, I took the pain to read the entire module yet again and guess what, it is like I knew Options right from the time I was born (lol). It is so much clear now. Thank you so much Karthik!
    I have shared my experience so that other readers need not get disheartened if they don’t understand it the first time. Keep reading it again and again and I assure you that things will start becoming clearer in your head.

  71. Romil says:

    However I do not want to buy the stock for delivery (yet) as I’m worried about a further decline of the stock. I did not understand this point and what is stock for delivery please explain and yes hatss off for simplfied explanation of all the topics of all the modules

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      ‘Stock for delivery’ means buying the stock with an intention of holding it for many days/weeks/months/years. So what I mean to say is that I dont plan to buy the stock on delivery basis as I fear the prices may go down further, thereby giving me a notional loss.

  72. p.shunmugaperumal says:

    can i close a option buy call before my expiry date

  73. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    STT, yesterdays(9/02/2017) appeal, i am confused, a person buys 3000 nifty 8622 call for .05 paisa at 3:20 p.m , how come he has thought, that before 3.30 his call will be bought by some trader, besides this , if he leave the entire lot unexercised , what was he expecting, exchange would bear the losses?

    Please help me to understand this.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      What he did was very simple – at 3:20PM he estimated that Nifty will close above 8600, I guess at 3:20, spot was just shy of 8600…so he went ahead and bought 8600CE. As per his expectation markets did close above 8600…I guess at 8602…so his call options turned profitable (and therefore ITM). But unfortunately, he was not aware of the STT implication on ITM the options. So he ended up paying a huge STT, which was way above the profits he made. Check the implication of STT here – http://zerodha.com/z-connect/queries/stock-and-fo-queries/stt-options-nse-bse-mcx-sx

  74. p.shunmugaperumal says:

    zerodha has currency buy call option know otherwise it has buy call option only for nifty and banknifity alone for trading

  75. p.shunmugaperumal says:

    to find option premium we hake to multiply the lot size with ltp of corresponding strike price to get premium value

  76. p.shunmugaperumal says:

    option have lot size know

  77. Shreyas says:

    Hello Sir,
    I am new to the Zerodha Varsity and am following the chapters intensely.I must say you are doing a gr8 job of educating us that too for free.I have read a couple of books on options and watched lots of youtube videos but till now I wasnt able to grasp the topic.Reading ur chapters h has cleared many of my doubts.Keep up the good work and educate us on more and more successful strategies.Also i want to ask can I just be an options trader exclusively and make good profits with minimum risks(till now I was doing futures and cash and lost quite a bit}.Plz enlighten.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Shreya, I’m happy to know that you like the contents here.

      You can choose to trade any financial instrument (equity spot, futures, options, commodities, currencies etc)…your profitability depends on your trading strategy and how well you execute the same.

  78. p.shunmugaperumal says:

    try to explain me more detail about premium calculation profit and loss calculation

    now i am buying a wipro contract of strike price 490 now the ltp is rs1.80 no of lot is 1200
    if i buy 2 no of lot means i have to pay 2*1.80=3.60rs (or) 1200*2*1.80=4320
    now if current wipro is trading at 500 means my profit will be =10*1200-3.6 (or) 10-3.6 (or) 10*1200-4320

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It will be lot size * number of lots * premium, so in your example it will be 1200*2*1.80=4320

      Your profit will be lot size * number of lots * (premium received- premium paid) and in your example it would be – 1200 * 2 * (10-1.8)

      i.e 1200 * 2 * 8.2 = 19,680/-

  79. trader2017 says:

    If for a particular series of option, there is significant change in the open interest every day but no major change in volume then what does this indicate?

  80. Girish says:

    if i purchase jswsteel 195 CE at 6 (3000*6=18000) and if stock price goes to 200 from 190 then how to calculate profit ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If it goes to 200, then the premium will also increase. The difference between how much premium you paid and received times the lot size is your profit. Good luck.

  81. tmothe says:

    Assume that if stock price moved to 200 then your option price also moved from 6 to 8 (But there is no guarantee like option price need to move along with stock price). Some time even if stock price touch the 200 option price will increase only .50 paise (i.e 1500/-)

  82. vijay says:

    What is implied volatility? How we can use of it in real time? Can you give an example to understand.

  83. Arun says:

    1.) What is the procedure of exercising my long call option on expiry day apart from letting it expire?( I want to know what order to place through the trading terminal) ?
    2.) On any other day we can trade the premium but can we trade the premium on expiry day also?

  84. Vikas Gupta says:

    Hi Karthik,

    What will be the brokerage charges in buying a call options?
    Let’s say I buy a call option of Tata Motors at strike price 480 and premium for this is Rs. 20. In this case what would be total brokerage that I need to pay?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Tata Motors has a lot size of 1500, so you will pay a premium of 3000 (1500*20), for which the brokerage is a flat fee of Rs.20.Remember its 20 per executed order…it does not matter how many lots you buy.

      Permit me for a bit of marketing here – Zerodha is the cheapest, technologically advance, and most customer friendly brokerage in the country. If you are not with us yet, please do consider signing up 🙂

  85. Arun says:

    Hi Karthik
    On expiry day if I square-off my ‘in the money’ option then how I will calculate my profit:
    1.) Difference between the premium
    2.)Max[0, (Spot price-strike price)] – Premium Paid

  86. Ankit says:

    Hello sir ,
    Sorry for testing you, but i got an problem about options trading
    please have a read on this
    Suppose date is 24/03/2017
    Option – USDINR call option (Buy)
    Strike rate 66
    CMP – 65.4575
    Premium 0.0100
    Expiry 29/03/2017
    Qty- 13 ????? (is this just 13 or 13×1000=13000) not sure about this
    and here is the output of this trade
    The premium was 0.0025 around expiry
    so Karthik sir my doubts for you are foolowing

    1. On expiry day near closing time a pop up window appearing in pi saying please close the ITM possitions for avoifing paying extra STT
    What’S the meaning of that window .
    2. If i want to choose buy currency CE and press F1 button then in QTY colum it is showing by deffault 1
    Is this 1 qty or 1 lot (1000 qty)
    3. Suppose i am in profit which is i am not just assume before expiry IS this mean this is due to inceease in premium say 0.0150,0.0200 or whatever u think so
    this is anything else otherthan increase in premium
    4. If i choose to close my ITM option on expiry day before 5:00 pm (say 11:00 AM) what would be then
    let option’s CMP IS 66.20
    Will this exit on profit which was due to premium
    or will exit at 66.20
    and profit will = {13×1000(66.20-66.00)-(13×1000×0.0100)}=2470 Rs.
    5 lets say i am not closing my position upon expiry
    Will be forthcome
    And what is this excess STT and how much extra is it
    6. I am not closing my position because i assume it
    This will wash out my profit on (66.20-66.00) right and limited it
    To increase in premium

    Actually sir this was my first ever trade in derivative segment
    And i cloed my position yesterday morning having loss around
    95 RS. . Iwas just testing my learning it was great experiance
    Means -75% movement is this comon
    Sir please guide me some tips to learn properly in this
    Segment if you can
    and last really reallt Sorry for forcing you to upload PDF
    It was long way back you did not remember that day but i
    Can please stay fit and healthy after all you need health
    to teach us
    Essay over……gud nyt

  87. Ankit says:

    I know there is no STT on currency derivatives in india you can assume that STT pop up window question for stock or index derivative instrument..
    Thanks for help

  88. Pravin Patel says:

    I have query regarding exercise of options.
    I will buy nifty call options exp 27 April at strike price 8800 premium 450.
    Can I exercise at spot price before expropriation date.
    If yes than what whoud be profit or loss pls clarify.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, you cannot exercise the option before the expiry. However, you can choose to square off the position whenever you want. You need to be aware that both exercise and square off are two different things.

  89. Mahi says:

    If suppose We brought some share @ 280 and after some day it increased to @ 300, can we sell then or have to wait till expiry. If in future share price fall like next day it fall @ 250 I mean to ask if we can sell off shares just like in Equity market?
    Totally new into stock world, sorry if its stupid question 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Buying shares is in the spot market, it has nothing to do with EQ markets. You can hold on to it for as long as you want. Even the futures contract can be sold anytime you wish, no need to wait for expiry.

  90. Naresh Kumar says:

    quick question: can we buy 2000 call option when spot price is at 2026.90 ? if so, assume the price settled at 2012 upon expiry .. it is still above the strike price, what would be my P&L?

  91. Naresh Kumar says:

    also, what would the p&l if we choose 2010 as strike option, assuming the spot price ends same as above?

  92. Arun Kumar Kushwaha says:

    I need to understand the actual Calculation behind.. how Options are calculated…
    according to attached screen shot.
    Yesterday (27 Apr 2017) Nifty expired @9342.15 ..
    PE 9350 @7.40 and CE 9300 @30.25
    Calculation Theories Says
    option value is = Time Value + Intrinsic Value
    so Put price 7 is ok.. but CE should be 42 but it’s 30..
    plz help in understanding it…

  93. Arun Kumar Kushwaha says:

    Sir i have searched for the data and found it.
    but all the settlement prices in all the option whether in PE or CE is 0
    screen shot is attached for CE 9300 http://prntscr.com/f25bqt and CE 9000 http://prntscr.com/f25b9s also. plz have a look

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, 0 indicates that the option expired worthless.

      • Arun Kumar Kushwaha says:

        But It was ITM Options… how Can ITM option expires Worthless.
        in that case if buyer doesn’t square off their position Before Expiry, their ITM options will expire Worthless??

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          ITM cannot expire worthless. Exchanges will take the onus of clearing the ITM options on your behalf. By the way, you may not want to hold ITM option upon expiry due to STT reasons. Check this – http://zerodha.com/z-connect/queries/stock-and-fo-queries/stt-options-nse-bse-mcx-sx

          • Arun Kumar Kushwaha says:

            I have searched and got another link on NSE, it’s bhav copy..
            and Got the price Differences on closing basis Vs LTP..
            so actual close was..
            CE 9300= 38.45 and LTP was 30.25
            PE 9350= 6.85 and LTP was 7.40
            but not able to find actual reason behind why minimum price differences is still there according to Theory and actual closing.

            and sir i had read STT trap previously and know why not to leave ITM position open @expiry.
            Thanks for making all the tough theories easy to understand, and making them all available @ same place..

            but now plz help me finding the difference between these prices why settlement is not according to theory?
            is there any hidden charges or taxes?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            The difference is because that there is a difference between LTP and closing prices. Closing prices is the average of the last 30 mins of trade.

  94. P Shunmugaperumal says:

    what is bid price and ask price .if ltp rate on the nse option chain is not present means shall i can consider any amount as that contract ltp the minimum ltp value is

  95. Arun Kumar Kushwaha says:

    Sir my query is not about the Differences between LTP and settlement price.
    but the Difference between actual closing settlement price of CE 9300 = 38.45 which should be approx 42 as you also said in your earlier first comment.
    is there any other hidden tax or charges ????

    after all Option settlement price should be (Intrinsic Value) = closing price – Strike price

  96. Waqaar says:

    Hi Sir,
    I had purchased nifty50 9500 strike price at 39.67 (75 * 39.67 = 2975.25). The current LTP is 69(75*69=5175). So my profit according to premium is 2200. But what will be profit if I exercise my call on expiry day incase nifty touches 9600 with considering lot option in calculation. And how I will exercise my option in Kite ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you do not close your option position, then it is assumed that you are exercising the option. Upon expiry, you will be profitable only if Nifty is above the strike + premium paid, which in your case is 9639.67. Any price for spot below this, you’d end up losing money. Also, it does not make sense to hold the position till expiry (unless it is really deep ITM) for STT purpose, check this – http://zerodha.com/z-connect/queries/stock-and-fo-queries/stt-options-nse-bse-mcx-sx

      • Waqaar says:

        Hi Sir,
        Yes, we should not let option to expire itself, we should exercise it, but how it can be done from Kite on Web ?
        And my position to be profitable it should be strike + premium:- 9500+39.67=9539.67, so suppose it crossed 9600, so profit will be this 9600 – 9539.67 = 60.33 and with quantity in lot consideration​ so calculation will be 60.33 * 75= 4524.75.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          No no – point is, it does not make sense to hold on to an ITM option for STT reasons. If you hold on to it till expiry, then it is implied that you are exercising it. Your breakeven point for a long call option is Strike + premium paid, which in your case is 9600 + 39.67 = 9639.67.

          • anilmwr says:

            Hi Karthik,
            If you read the first question of WAQAAR again, strike price was 9500. So breakeven point is 9539.67.
            If nifty reaches he will profit 60.33 per share.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            You will start to make money once the spot price crosses the strike and also crosses the premium you’ve paid. So for example if the call strike is 100, premium is 20, then the breakeven is 120.

  97. Gokul says:

    Dear concern,
    I am very new to options as I have just started options trading I have some queries in my mind..hope u will answer
    Sir if I buy nifty call option for strike price of 9550 at a premium of suppose 16 ruppes. And before expiry the premium value goes to say 26 rupees whereas nifty rises to 8475 from 9410. So in this scenario my strike price is not achieved but my premium went on rising … So can I enjoy the rise in premium by selling my position ? Can I get 10 rs proft for my positions?
    Pls revert
    Thank u

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can close the position and enjoy the increase in premium. No need to wait till expiry.

  98. ABINAYA says:

    so in the above case explained above(bajaj auto) ,call option buyer will exercise his right and ,minimize his loss to 1.35 rather than losing 6.35 right?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      This is just illustrating the fact that the buyer of a call option is taking a risk to the extent of the premium paid, in this case the premium happens to be 6.35.

  99. Ankit says:

    Hi karthik,
    I have doubt regarding STT
    On expiry day one sms is sent by Zerodha “STT cost is 25 times square off ITM contracts………. ”
    Let banknifty spot is 23000, I buy 1 lot call option strike price 23100 (otm).
    I forget to close my position and banknifty expires at 23200. in this case would I have to pay 25 times stt.

  100. pramod says:

    can i sell call option and can i buy put option?

  101. Sudarshan Singh says:

    In the Option Chain on NSE, IV is Intrinsic Value. In the example given for Bajaj Auto above, how the value 35.22 is derived for strike price of 2000 In CE at Spot price of 2026.9 ?

  102. Tarun says:

    Error : option strike price based on ltp percentage. Please help

  103. Deepak says:

    trying to put option order but getting following error
    “exchg not enabled for this acct”

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Guess you need to enable FnO segment in your account. PLease do call our support for this.

  104. Vishal says:

    Hi Karthik,
    Very nice explanation, i have started treading in options. Thanks:)
    When you are planning to have this in Marathi language.

  105. SANTOSH says:

    Hi karthik

    Thanks for sharing the basics of option trading. its really helpful for novice traders.

    One question i have is lets assume that i bought a option (CE) with premium of 2.55 and lot size of 3750. i paid a premium of ( 2.55*3750=9562.5).

    But unfortunately it started falling down and assume current premium is 1. in this case i am currently experiencing a loss of 5812 and if i square off i need to take losses. so the balance money which i get back in this case is 3750 from exchange ( 9562.5-5812= 3750.5).

    But in case if i hold till expiry date and let it get expired, i will lose 9562.50 along with other STT charges.

    Please correct if i am wrong.


  106. Vishal says:

    We can see top 5 bids and offer prices in zerodha. Is there any way where we can see all bids and offer prices?

  107. Vijay says:

    Hi Karthik

    Excellent series…just read one or two modules.

    One question on what you mentioned above – “you will lose your entire premium if call option expires below strike”

    Let us say I buy Nifty call option at strike of 10000 (current spot – 9800) at a premium of 1.5….now, let us say the spot increases to 9900 (still under the strike), wont the premium go up beyond 1.5 due to IV being impacted due to upward spot movement? And if the premium becomes 1.6 and even if spot < strike, I can sell the option at a profit of 1.6 – 1.5. Please advise if this is right?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you are right.In this case, you are trading the premiums and the P&L will be the difference between the premiums.

  108. Vijay says:

    A follow up ques Karthik,

    Assuming one will not hold the option till expiry, one is basically impacted my movement on the premium in the near term, which is impacted by greeks….in this case, can a decision to buy/sell an option contract (as you illustrated above) still be based on basic anticipation of stock price movement?

    I ask this because it would take long for someone to master all concepts you have covered across modules here so should one wait till that time or trades based on stock price movements still work?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can. In fact, most of the traders just trade the premiums and do not really hold the options to expiry.

      • Vijay says:

        Thanks Karthik…so in simple terms,
        1. can one simply trade premiums based just on underlying spot price movement?
        2. do the premiums, mostly move in consort with spot price (assuming the expiry is far and time decay is not very strong)?
        3. how strongly does the spot price movement impact volatility or is IV factoring the future irrespective of current spot price movement?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          1) Yes
          2) More or less, yes. However, you should be aware that there are other factors that will affect premium
          3) As strongly as the spot does, but with the element of time.

  109. Sourav Ghosh says:

    Let, I bought nifty call option(1lot) at a premium of Rs.50/- and sold that at a premium of Rs.60/- on any day before expiry, I would make a profit of 10*75=750??
    If so, then what is the advantage of holding an option till expiry(taken strike price hit before or on expiry)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you will make that profit. By holding till exiry, you are essentially giving your option more time….maybe it can go from 70 to 80?

  110. AJITH THOMAS says:

    Is it not possible to buy real shares in demat account through option contracts ?

  111. Kiran Francis says:

    I am a beginner in India what should we do to exercise option on expiry date. Will exchanges automatically settle the profit amount above the strike price?

  112. Shaili says:

    Hello, Karthik.

    Recently started reading options module. I have a query.

    When the buyer of an option sells it (to gain a premium profit), after squaring off his position – is he free? Or does he become an obligated writer of the option?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, after closing the position you do not have any obligation as you are out of the market.

      • Shaili says:

        Thank you, Karthik. One more thing.

        While shorting a call/put option, the seller is compulsorily obligated to hold his position till expiry by earning premium only or he can square off his position like the buyer can to change his profit/loss scenario like shorting in futures.

  113. Nancy says:

    Thank you for educating free of cost. Very few do it. I have a query.

    When I try to buy a call option there are two options in Kite platform, Normal and MIS. I understand MIS is intraday. So what is Normal? In equities, there are two options CNC or MIS. I always buy in CNC.

    If I buy a call option today in Normal when do I get the delivery? Can I sell it on the same day if the price moves up? ( Sorry if the question sounds silly as I have never traded in options. Just trying to understand it)


    • When you buy an Option in MIS, the position is squared off at/after 3.20 PM. And if you buy using NRML(Normal), you can hold the option contract till expiry, which is last Thursday of every month for Equity Options.
      There is no delivery for Equity Options in India and there will be a cash settlement on the expiry date.
      Yes, you can sell the Option contract you bought under Normal also on the same day.
      All order types are explained in the Kite User Manual in detail https://kite.trade/docs/kite/#product-types

      • Nancy says:

        Thank you for your prompt response. Can you clear another query of mine. Say I bought shares of a company at Rs 100 in CNC without putting any stop loss. After a few days the share price has reached my target and I sell it. This needs monitoring the market everyday. Is there a mechanism wherein I can tell the system in advance to sell the shares whenever it reaches my target say Rs 110?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Essentially you are looking at a feature called Price Alerts. Unfortunately, we do not have this feature, yet.

          • Nancy says:


          • Nancy says:

            Can I do this in SL or SL-M. For e.g In CNC segment , at the time of purchase of 100 shares @ Rs 200 I put SL trigger price as Rs 220. Does it mean when the share price reaches Rs 220 the system will automatically sell the shares?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            When you place SL, it is essentially a limit price. If you want it to certainly sell, then opt for SL M.

  114. Nancy says:

    Thanks. In my above example, if I put SL-M price as Rs 220 and if the market price is Rs 190 will the order get executed ?

  115. Tushar says:

    Can you please explain the basis to select exercise price for options. Say I am bullish on a stock which is currently trading at 100 rs. so at what exercise price should I purchase a call option ?

  116. eswar says:


    when niftyCE10200 26 oct 2017 reach to 0 what happen

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      That means the 10200CE has expired worthless. Buyer loses the money and seller retains the premium received.

  117. Nirmal says:

    can i place market order for buy or sell option?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Market orders is allowed only for Nifty and Bank Nifty. You need to place limit orders for stock options. If you want to send this as a market order, then do place the limit at a price higher (if you want to buy) or lower (if you want to sell). The order will get instantly if there is liquidity.

  118. Ron Kalra says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I just want to know why the prices or deep in the money and deep out of the money are not displayed and traded. Ok i will try to explain myself with example. Let’s say i want to trade options of cipla, and i want to go long ( buy a naked call ). The closing price of cipla ( underlying ) on Friday was 640 and i’m intersted in buying a deep in the money call which is strike price of 540. But when when i try to open the option chain for cipla in NSE website, all the strike price below 550 till 450 have blank fields in it and show no data as if there is no trading going on all these strike prices. I’m not able to attach picture ( snap shot ) of the option chain in this comment session but i will appreciate if you can go to NSE website and see the option chain for Cipla and then you will understand my quesion.
    My concern is what if i have a strategy of 2-3 legs where in i might have to buy/sell deep in the money options. How can i buy/sell those deep in the money options. I’m new to options so maybe i’m asking you something very basic. Even if i try to open the chart for these deep in the money option chain they don’t open.
    Is the trading on options which are deep in the money or deep out of the money halted until the prices comes back to those price levels. Also how are new option strike price generated. Let’s say with the same example if Cipla ( underlying prices ) goes up to 700, then what happens to strike price of 600 ?? and when and how will be strike price option of 700, 720 strike price available ??
    Not sure if i’m able to explain myself clearly but hopefully you get my question. I will really appreciate if you can clear my questions about how option strike prices are generated and is it possible to trade deep in/out of the money options.
    Many thanks

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Ron, the reason is simple, and you’ve answered it yourself 🙂

      There is no one trading these options, hence no bid-ask…in other words, no liquidity in these contracts.

      • Ron Kalra says:

        Hi Karthik,
        Thanks for your reply. So what if in case i still have one of these option ( deep in/out of the money ) before expiry. How can i sell it ? For Example i have Cipla strike price 520 ( I’m long on this one ) and now the stock is trading at 650. So what happens to my 520 strike price call option. How can i sell it if there is no buyer ? What are my choices and what can i do in these situation.
        Thanks again

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          The exchange has its own mechanism to settled all ITM options. In this case, you are entitled to receive in cash Rs.130/- from the seller, which you will. OTM options expire worthlessly.

  119. Ron Kalra says:

    hi karthik,
    sorry to bother you again, but can you please help me know what is good for day trading Futures or Options. I know that it depends on person to person but if you don’t mind can you please let me know what is your preference if you have to day trade ( options or futures ? )
    Also, i will apprecaite if you can let me know few advantages and disadvantage of futures and options for day trading.
    many thanks
    You rock and you help me make my decesions better.

  120. ravi says:

    sir i brought vedanta call option @320 strike price @the premium 11.60 now vedanta stock rate is 324 and premium 12.30 if i sell today can i get profit and how much?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can sell it anytime you want. Your profit will be the difference between the price of the premiums… i.e 12.30-11.60 = 70 paise. Multiply 70 paise by the lot size to know your total profit.

  121. Srini says:

    Hi Karthik,

    First, I want to thank you very much for doing a wonderful job. I have one doubt regarding ITM option.

    Assume I bought one ITM option Nifty CE 9200 at 1068.70 when today’s spot price is around 10200. Total value comes around 80152 (1068.70 x 75). Assume option is expiring at 10100. Total value will be 67500 (10100-9200) x 75. So it is a loss from the value when brought (80152) even though spot price has increased from 9200. Am I correct on the above calculation or missing something here?

    I checked randomly for ITM strikes (from deep ITM to slightly ITM). The total value when buying the option is greater than the value when options are expiring (assuming my above calculation is right). Also, I have noticed there are large premiums starting from 2000. What is the strategy behind holding those large premium options if on expiration the total value is less?

    Thanks and Regards,


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, that would be a loss. Remember, when you bought the spot was at 10200 and now it declined 100 points to 10100. Along with the decline in spot price, there is also a loss in terms of time value. Both these combined leads to a decline in option premium.

      Most option strategies are around ATM and few strikes above are below these.

  122. pratik says:

    Sir, i have a doubt.

    If i purchase call option with expiry of “28th December”i.e next month (too much safer side) assuming nifty will go beyond 10500 (bullish perspective) with strike price of 10300 or 10350. Premium is around 160-175. Then what will happen with my contract on this expiry (30th November)? May be i am confusing in basics only. Sorry in advance if doubt is too silly.

    And if i can continue with my contract after this expiry (30th November) and assuming premium goes to 250, then what will be my profit?

  123. Sampath kumar says:

    I want to know the basics like how to book profit/loss since the item is still not in my hand (account) ? or how to exercise my agreement with the seller if I am in profit ? Do I need to make the full payment to exercise the trade ? Please explain.

  124. Ankur Agrawal says:

    sir i need a information regarding option trading. if i buy something, for example: if i buy federal bank nov 110 ce at 4 rupees and then if it’s value increases to 5 or anything, is that possible to apply stop loss in case of option trading because i tried but stop loss is getting rejected while i apply for options?

  125. Ankur Agrawal says:

    and one more thing, if i buy some option at the rate of rs 4 and the next morning at 9.15 i place a selling order at rs. 5….as options take some time to open and before it opens, my selling price will be there…if that specific option directly opens at 6 then what price i will get in this case 5 or 6?

  126. Mohan says:

    Please clarify my doubt

    I bought Bank nifty call option @25 strike price is 25700
    But on expiry day it closing price is 12.75 but spot Bank nifty closed above 25736
    Now what price is calculating for me profit or loss

    Please explain

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You paid 25 as premium but the premium has declined to 12.75, so you make a loss of 12.25.

      • Vijay says:

        Hi Mr.karthik, I have doubt on this conversation,
        Assume Mr. Mohan sold that stock option on the day of expiry ,then according to PL formula
        (PL for call = (Spot price – strike price)- premium paid. Ie: PL= (25736-25700)-25 = 36-25 =11)) he should be in profit of Rs.11/-

        Why and How he was in loss ?

        And on the day of expiry regardless of current premium ,PL formula works or not.
        Or do we need to consider premium also.

        Please clarify my doubt….

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          If you have sold an option and the option expires worthless, then you would retain the whole premium! No loss here.

  127. Laxmi Narayan says:

    How to place this order in zerodha
    Tata Motor 400 option call CMP-30
    Buy only above 32.50
    Target 34/36/38

    Can I put this all in single order.
    How can I put my order with above price compare to CMP??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You are essentially looking at buying above CMP and simultaneously looking at placing a target and SL order. This is possible with something called as a Stoploss bracket order, the same will be available with the new version of Kite, called Kite3.0.

      • Laxmi Narayan says:

        That mean this order will be as follows.
        SL. BO

        CMP 30
        Price Box- 32.60
        Target Price box- 3

        My doubt this order on which price will execute CMP 30 or as soon as cross 32.60. That particular amount 32.70

  128. Abdul says:

    When will Zerodha enable SL-M order type for Options stock? How long it would take?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No market orders on stock options, Abdul. Stock options are still not liquid enough to absorb impact cost shocks, given this market orders can be quite disastrous.

  129. Bharadwaj says:

    In case if the spot price crossed strike price before expiry. How does the square off works? And if the spot price closes below strike price on expiry, I get nothing out of the contract?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can just trade the premiums before expiry. For example, assume you bought a call option by paying a premium of Rs.25 and now the same option is trading at Rs.35, you can choose the square of the position and a pocket the difference of Rs.10. No need to wait till expiry.

      • Bharadwaj says:

        As mentioned in the tutorial, we can square off the contract only if there is a buyer right? Example case of Chirag Gupta, he unable to square off because there won’t be any buyers for that contract. Since the spot price crossed the strike price there won’t be anyone who’s interested in buying it. What to do in this case?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, liquidity is essential when you trade options. So, always look for ample liquidity so that you can buy or sell the contracts easily.

          • Bharadwaj says:

            Ok, one more question, if I leave the contract which is under loss to let it expire, do I loose complete margin? Or just the difference amount?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            If you are a buyer, then there is nothing much you need to do. You can leave it and let it expire.

  130. Bharadwaj says:

    Thank you 🙂
    There is a lot more to know.

  131. Bharadwaj says:

    Is it recommended to average out the contract if it is falling below the existing price?

  132. Rohan says:


    I want to ask that suppose xyz has 1.50 premium-CE , Q = 800
    So i need 1200(800*1.50) to buy CE option ..

    How much fund needed to carry forward position for 1 week ?
    Do i need only 1200 to carry forward or .. need more ?

    Thank you

  133. Vikash says:

    Please reply.

    I have 2 lots of 10500ce at 60/-
    Market is around 10500. but LTP premium is 44/-
    If the market closes around 10600 at the expiry.
    Calculation would be like (10600-10500)-60=40
    & 40*2lot (75qty)= 6000/- profit

    Am i calculating correct or something missing here????

  134. Sachin J says:

    Sorry if this is already answered, pls answer if I brought an option as NRML today and if I want to sell it so can I place a sell order , would that square off the position?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, that would square off the position. Remember, you can buy and sell the option anytime you need, no need to wait until expiry.

  135. Dnyanesh says:

    Hello Sir,

    Query – If I buy an option and suppose it goes up by a lot. Now I have kept my trigger order for sell much above the bid price. What happens to the option on day of expiry? Does it get automatically squared off? do I need to pay extra money to exercise the option etc?
    Kindly help!!


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No extra money for option exercising. The option will get sold when your bid price matches the offer price.

  136. jyotshna says:

    If I buy call option of a strike price at say 2. so 75*2=150 I have to pay+20 as brokerage.
    If I see on expiry day premium became 0.05, if I square off then I will get 75*0.05 = 3.75.
    1.) Here again 20 will be charged as brokerage and also exchange related tax ?
    2.) If I leave this I will loose all the amount, it is good to squareoff or let it expire ? ( leaving for expiry because of brokerage and tax > total amount ).
    3.) If lots are say 50 then 3.75*50= 187.5, how much brokerage for this ?

  137. rohan says:

    Hi sir

    I have bought 10900 JAN18 NIFTY CE using NRML .
    I want to square off my position now.
    From Kite when I press exit button it asks how many shares to sell. If i press exit after that , will my position be squared off
    or I have to change to MIS for Intraday square off ?

  138. Ashish Gupta says:

    Hi Nithin,

    I have the basic but very important question for which I haven’t got the answer yet even after reading full options chapter.

    It is mentioned above that,
    “the call option is supposed to make a profit when the spot price moves above the strike price”.

    However even if spot moves by certain amount and haven’t crossed strike price yet, the premium also increases for my selected strike. Can we book profit at this time(I am excluding premium paid,brokerage,tax for now).

    E.g. Nifty spot at 11000,
    Strike selected 11500 for Rs. 50.
    Now if Nifty spot moved to 11200, premium for selected strike 11500 will rise to Rs. 150, let’s say.

    Now there is a 300% return even if spot haven’t crossed strike.

    I hope scenario is valid and realistic.

    Ashish Gupta

  139. Dheeraj says:

    Statement 1: You can buy a call option now and sell it within few minutes if you wish…so exciting an option is not a problem provided a counterparty is available.

    Statement 2: Exercising of an option contract is the act of claiming your right to buy the options contract at the end of the expiry. If you ever hear the line “exercise the option contract” in the context of a call option, it simply means that one is claiming the right to buy the stock at the agreed strike price. You can exercise the option only on the day of the expiry and not anytime before the expiry.

    The second statement last line says that you can ONLY sell on the expiry date but the first statement says you can sell at any time before as well.

    i don’t understand the concept here. Can you please explain. Statement 2 is taken from the comments (by Karthik). Statement one is from the Module 5 (Chapter 2).

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      These are two different things, Dheeraj. Exercising an option happens only the expiry day, however, you can sell the option anytime you wish. Have explained this in several places under the comments section.

  140. Anup says:

    Dear Karthik,
    in profit and loss table, for eg if Nifty option is bought at premium of Rs 45 if the premium increases to Rs 47, the profit will be Rs 2 with brokerage charges, break even happens after brokerage charges are met, why do we have to consider Intrinsic Value, and break even after the premium amount is met, please explain.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you are trading the premium (as in buy and sell quickly), then only the change in premium matters. If you hold to expiry, then intrinsic value matters.

  141. Akshay says:

    Can you tell the parameters of the studies in the Technical analysis of the first chart in this module?

  142. Emmanuel says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I had bought Auropharma CE, expiry 22-Feb-18 at strike 640 for premium 29.5 (lot 800). So I squared off my open position when the underling was 575 and the premium was 0.45.

    1. I am under the impression that if the trade goes wrong, as a CE buyer I will lose the entire premium ie, 800*29.5 = 23600
    2. When I squared off my position, I received Rs 360, ie 800*0.45
    3. In case I had squared off my position earlier, would I have still received the amount? For example, if I had squared off my position when the premium was Rs 10, I would have received Rs 8000?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) If you have squared off at 0.45, then you have lost the entire premium i. 23.6K
      2) Yes
      3) Yes – you will receive the difference between the buy and sell value of the premium.

  143. Vidya says:

    Hi, I have a query. Does Option pay-out work like Futures pay out too (end of day M2M principle) OR does it work like equity payout (upon exiting the position only)?
    Your help is greatly appreciated.

  144. Rubal Shah says:

    Hi ,

    I had bought PNB CE, expiry 28-Mar-18 at strike 110 for premium 1.90 (lot 4000).
    1.I want to sell the CE before the expiry with premium of Rs. 3.5 . Will I receive the difference between premium 6400( 3.5-1.90)* 4000 at the time of selling the call option?
    2. WHat if there are no buyers at the time of selling the Call option?
    3. At the time of expiry is it compulsory for me to buy the market lot of the above share or else simply i can exit at whatever would be the position at the time of expiry?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, you will receive the difference. Btw, congrats on the profitable trade 🙂
      2) In this case, you will be forced to hold the option to expiry and wait for the settlement from the exchange
      3) You can simply let it expire, but you will end up paying a huge STT. Its advisable to close all ITM option before expiry.

  145. Rubal Shah says:

    How much amount is required to buy a call option

    • Suman Chatterjee says:

      You have to pay price * lot size (minimum 1 lot ) = total premium amount

      • Rubal Shah says:

        price * lot size (minimum 1 lot ) = total premium amount

        Price means premium amount per share or cmp of the share at the time of buying call option?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Depends on the premium for the call option. Multiply the lot size with the premium and you will know the money required.

  146. shravan says:


    I want to know how I can find a stock option which is going up or down in current market or one day before (there is any screener or strategies to find out) pls guide me

  147. RS says:

    HI If I am having a huge loss as a buyer of options CE, then does it make any sense to square off or should it let it lapse.. for example purchase jet airways ce at Rs 24 premium , but the current premium is less than Rs 1. Is there any additional loss if I dont settle.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I guess you have experienced maximum loss here, you will not have any further losses. Given this, you have no advantage by selling the option, rather, you may as well hold and hope for some recovery.

  148. RS says:

    Thanks Karthik, in this case basically i should wait for the expiry ie 28th march. Am i right on that

  149. VENKATESH says:

    hi karthik

    assume i buy option of IOC Strike price 220 rate of premium RS 1.10 expire date on 28/03/2018 ,
    end of the expire date no one seller remaning what happen then the premium amount

  150. Kalyankumar Kulkarni says:

    Dear sir/Mam,
    In Call buy option once spot price move above the breakeven point profit stars and profit will be continued unlimited up to expiry date, now my question is, if spot price come back i.e reversed and crosses the strike price (down side), what will be the rate of profit/loss?

  151. Subhash Singh says:

    Thanks a lot, for providing so much useful information. I learned a lot about options from comment section only. Please clear my one doubt. Suppose I buy one lot in call option at premium of 10, strike price 300 and current price is 280. one lot contains 100 shares.
    A.Before expiry the premium goes up to 12 and i book my profit i.e12-10=2*1000= 2000.
    B.But after that as you told above on comments reply that we have to exercise option on expiry, so my question is.
    1. After booking profit as per point A i.e is of 2000, now at the day of expiry the price of share go below 280. At that point did I loose something.

  152. sravan says:

    Hi Sir,
    A general question to u that
    why the stocks like HCC,PC JEWELERS r moving so drastically more than 20,30,40%(UP&DOWN) in a single day do they don’t have upper or lower circit limit ?
    Plz clarify me.
    thanks in advance.

  153. sai says:

    is it possible square off in the money call option before expiry? i thought you can settle only on expiry day else one get only premium difference?
    how will profit calculated if square off before expiry day?
    eg: i buy call option for rs 50 premium ,strike price 11000 ,lot 150, now spot price 11200,few days for expiry what will my profit ? is it 150 *200 ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you certainly can square off before expiry. No need to wait till expiry. To know your profit you just need to take the difference between the price you paid for the option and the price at which you squared off. For example, if you bought at 50 and sold at 75, then you make 25, of course, multiply this by the lot size.

      • sai says:

        Thank you sir,i have 2 more queries,
        1)is it wise to wait till expiry or squareoff before expiry for maximum profit when underlying moves in your favour and in the money??
        is high STT applicable now?

        2) does premium become equal to closing price -strike price on expiry day if its in the money?If not what would be premium on expiry day if spot price higher than strike price?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          1) This is really dependent on the situation, Sai.
          2) The premium depends on the intrensic value of the option. Have explained more on this later.

  154. ASHPAK says:


  155. swamy says:


    I’m new to OPTION and my question is like below,

    What is happening to my account , when i forget the buying of below CALL OPTION and check my account on 15th JULY

    NIFTY JUN 8100 CE @ 31.30

    at expiry nifty reaches 8250

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The call option has expired ITM, hence you will make a 250 – 31.3 = 218.7 minus all the applicable charges.

      • swamy says:

        Noted Sir,

        So on the time of expiry its not require to close the trade…NSE(ZERODHA) will automatically close the trade and send the profits to my account…isn’t it ?

  156. Ashish Kadam says:

    Dear Sir.

    I f I want to sell any CE or PE in advance what is the premium required?
    eg. If today I want to sell the Bharti Airtel June 370PE whose premium is Rs 6.95 and lot size is 1700 Nos. And Price in a cash market is 377.55 how much money is required to take this position?

  157. Javid Ishraque says:

    Just wanted to ask. If I purchase a LEAP with expiry on 2023 for nifty. Can you tell me what will be the liquidity like when I try to sell it sometime on 2023. Will I face problems because most likely by then it will be very very in the money.

  158. anil nebhani says:

    hi my question posted here deleted …dont know how… i want to ask .. suppose a stock is running at 200 and i want to buy it when it comes at 205 …. for that if i am not able to monitor the screen regularly .. then how to do that … which thing i have to set so that when price comes at 205 it will execute my buy.Because in SL-M case it buys whatever price it is getting at that time .. no control of buying on exact 205…. Please resolve my query i am facing this issue ……

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      For this you need Good till cancel order, we should have this order type soon.

      • anil nebhani says:

        Karthik Rangappa says:
        July 26, 2018 at 2:51 pm
        For this you need Good till cancel order, we should have this order type soon.

        you need good ? means?

  159. Ansh says:


    In options you cannot close positions before expiry so how come the OI at many occasions is negative? What does it imply?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can close the position anytime you wish, Ansh.

      • Ansh says:

        Hello Karthik,

        This is from page 13
        Here is an important point to note – you can
        exercise the option only on the day of the expiry and not anytime before the expiry.

        Hence, assume with 15 days to expiry one buys ITC 340 Call option when ITC is
        trading at 330 in the spot market. Further assume, after he buys the 340 call option,
        the stock price increases to 360 the very next day. Under such a scenario, the option
        buyer cannot ask for a settlement (he cannot exercise) against the call option he
        holds. Settlement will happen only on the day of the expiry, based on the price the
        asset is trading in the spot market on the expiry day.


        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yeah, exercising an option is different from selling an option. You can sell an option anytime you want but you cannot really exercise anytime time. To exercise you will have to wait till expiry.

          • Ansh says:

            Thanks Karthik. so, if I am a call buyer (Index/European option) sitting on good profit may end the contract before expiration, only if the other party is ok with it.However if the other party is not interested then I can exercise on the day of expiry. In case of individual security/American options I can exercise my right before expiration. Is this correct?

            This is from NSE website


            Further the Options are classified based on type of exercise. At present
            the Exercise style can be European or American.
            American Option – American options are options contracts that can be
            exercised at any time upto the expiration date. Options on individual
            securities available at NSE are American type of options.
            European Options – European options are options that can be
            exercised only on the expiration date. All index options traded at NSE
            are European Options.
            Options contracts like futures are Cash settled at NSE.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            The buyer of the option has a right, Ansh. No need to think about the counterparty. Apart from that, everything else is right.

  160. Manas Pandey says:

    Dear sir, i have observed something very important, rather strange. Since the break even is said to be = Strike Price + Premium Paid, so let’s suppose that i buy a long call at strike price 11200 at a premium of suppose 200. So break even should be 11200 + 200 = 11400. So i opened the zerodha brokerage calculator & entered 75 in quantity, & 11400 in Buy price. Now theoretically even if nifty increases 1 point that is 11400+1 = 11401 i should have some profit but it’s showing a Loss of 1486.27 ,
    Infact it is showing loss until nifty reach at 11421, whole 21 points more than break-even, so shouldn’t the actual formula would be Strike Price + Premium Paid + Brokerage exp. (stt, gst etc.)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Manas, the brokerage calculator shows the P&L based on the premium. It does not consider the strike. The one that you have explained is based on the strike price.

      • Manas Pandey says:

        Sorry sir, i didn’t get that. Can you please explain it with the above figures..
        Like suppose i buyed a long call at strike 11200 by paying a premium of 200 & afterwards it goes up to 11300. Then what should i enter in the calculator as Buy Price, Sell Price & quantity ( if lot size is 75 )

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Let’s say you bought 1 lot of Nifty 11200 option by paying 200 as premium. Now Nifty hits 11400 and you sell this option for 430. You have to enter 200 as your buy price and 430 as your sale price. Don’t consider the strike prices (this is wrt the brokerage calculator).

          Good luck!

  161. SHyam says:

    Hi SIr,

    I have heard about traders doubling their money after 2.30 on expiry day trading. As i was bullish on bank nifty today i tried placing a 28500 call @0.80. The order was rejected and I got this message.

    RMS:Rule: Option Strike price based on Ltp percentage for entity account- across exchange across segment across product

    Can you advice what went wrong. I could see huge volumes being traded. But I was unable to do this through zerodha.

  162. Manas Pandey says:

    Dear sir, sorry to bother you again but it’s very confusing when just starting out with options. Today i saw ATM strike 11450 at a premium of 134.6 at 3:16pm. Now suppose if i go long in it & nifty increases some points & premium stands at 146 then can i square off & earn the 10 X 75 (lot size) = 750 profit or it will be possible only after when the break even is breached ( 11450+134.6 = 11584.6 )

  163. rajesh says:

    subject: need clarity

    i buyed cipla call option strick price 320 aug 30 expiry
    how to sqareoff
    do i need margin to sell call option that i already broght

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No margin required. Goto the positions tab in Kite, select the position, and click on exit. This will square off the option. If this is your first time, I’d suggest you call our support desk, they will be happy to walk you through this.

      Good luck with the trade.

  164. Abhi says:

    Dear Sir,

    I have a query on buying a CE and below is my query:-

    Lets suppose, infosys spot price today is 1408 and there are strike price available of 1390 and 1420. premium respectively are 25 and 15 Rs. what is the significance on profit if i buy 1390 CE by paying 25 rs premium and infy spot price starts going up and if infy start going down


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      There is no straightforward answer to this because there are multiple factors which influence the premium 🙂

      The % profit will be higher in 1420CE assuming there is more time to expiry. If the time to expiry is short, then 1390 CE would be better.

      • Abhi says:

        Appreciate your response,
        consider we are on 20th and i am expecting to dilute my position on the day of expiry. considering the formula that is “P&L = Max [0, (Spot Price – Strike Price)] – Premium Paid” . If strike price is 1390 and spot price goes up to 1430 or 1440 . My profit will be

        In case spot price is 1430 => Max[0, (1430-1390)] – 25=15* Lot
        In case spot price is 1420 => Max[0,(1420-1390)] – 25=5* lot
        now considering strike price is 1420 and in that case, loss will be “Max[0,(1420-1420)] -15 = 15”
        now considering strike price is 1430 and in that case, loss will be “Max[0,(1430-1420)] -15 = 5”

        Is my calculation above correct? In case the above is correct then in the money call of 1390 is more profitable ?


        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Abhi, this is for a Long PUT option, right? If yes, its correct. Thanks.

          • Abhi says:

            No Kartik, above example i stated for long call, when spot price was 1408 i took in the money call option and purchase 1390 CE.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            My bad, I meant Long Call 🙂

            This is the intrinsic value of a call option, upon expiry.
            P&L = Max [0, (Spot Price – Strike Price)] – Premium Paid

  165. Varun says:

    Sir is the closing price of current day would be the buy price for next day in a call option ? I mean that today i buyed a call option paying premium of 75 & it reached to 91 but i didn’t sold it as i was bullish on nifty. But the next day 91 was shown as my buy price & i was incurring a loss as premium went under 91 & not under 75. Why is it so ?

  166. prakhar says:

    just curios to know how does option market work in usa.Does it provides European syle option contracts same as nse or something else.

  167. RANITT says:

    Hi Karthik Rangappa,

    I checked today option chain (Underlying Stock: PFC 82.65 As on Aug 29, 2018 11:35:53 IST)
    where the IV for strike 80 CE is showing as 105.79. what does it mean? as per my understanding it is supposed to be Max(0, Spot -strike) ie. ~ 2.65
    why it is 105.79 what will happen if the buyer excercise the option tomorrow (assume spot remains 82.65) ?

  168. RANITT says:

    Hi Karthik Rangappa,

    One more doubt.. for ex I buy few lots of call option. what will happen to this contract if there is no buyer for trading till expiry?
    won’t I be having any chance other than exercising option or loosing the premium?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If the contracts expire ITM, the exchange will settle it for you. Else it will expire worthlessly.

  169. Prashant says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Firstly would like to congratulate you on the great work you’re doing.

    I bought a Piramal Enterprise 3000 call option for September expiry. Now my concern is that all the calls above this price are liquid and moving but this call is not moving – its pretty illiquid, there were only 3 lots traded today –

    I don’t understand how this is possible. Also should I hold this or exit it at whatever price (its out of the money – simply coz its illiquid even though the stock price has moved) – Do these kind of options become more liquid at the time of expiry?

    Please advise.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Prashant, this is quite common. Stock options do tend to get illiquid. There is no guarantee that they get liquid towards expiry, but generally speaking, there will be some liquidity coming in towards expiry.

  170. Pritam says:

    sir, lets consider a scenario that banknifty is at 28000 (spot price). Now i buy a weekly banknifty call option at the strike of 28300. i buy say 1 lot (40) at Rs. 40. Now as per the above calculation if banknifty doesn’t go above the strike means that means i will make loss of 1600 rs. but thats not happening. If price goes above 40 then i will make a proffit. can u explain this litle bit.
    if my question is seems idiotic then forgive me. I am a novice in stock market. This chapter create some confusion about banknifty weekly option trading which is not getting match with what i did so far. please explain.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you will make a profit only if the premium price goes above 40. It is like buying a stock, you make money only if the price goes up beyond your purchase price. Btw, please feel free to ask your questions here, this platform is meant for all of us to learn.

  171. P.Kumar says:


    I am having a query about strike price.
    Today Yes Bank closed at Rs. 317.50.

    What are the repercussions, if I buy 27SEP2018 options at lower than today’s close price.
    For example, 27SEP2018 Rs. 310 Strike Price Option is being quoted at Rs. 14.80 at the end of the day.

    What will happen if I buy this option on 27 Sep 2018
    (a) If the stock price moves up to say Rs. 340 (better than today’s price of Rs. 317.50) . While buying options, I have assumed that stock price goes down to Rs. 310

    I request you to clarify on this point.

  172. Pardeep kumar says:

    If i short sell nifty futures in the futures market than can i hedge my position by buying call option. if yes than at what strike price it should be bought.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can. Remember to hedge a futures position with options, you will have to short options in such a way that the deltas add up to 1, since the futures delta is 1.

  173. Anmol says:

    I wish to enter options trading, i have a query if you could help,
    Southbank result are near
    Currently trading at 12
    Its oct 16 Call option is at [email protected]
    Now if i buy this and premium goes up to 0.25 but spot price of the option does not cross 16 . Will i make a profit by selling it at 0.25?
    Ie 3314.1

  174. Yuvaraj says:

    I could see, the premium price is moving negative for same strike price both in call buy CE and Put buy PE. For instance infy on 17th Oct around 11 am,strike price 720 both CE and PE permium are trading lower. What does it implies.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It just means that the option premiums are cooling off with the reduction in volatility.

      • Yuvaraj says:

        My understanding is for particular strike it should be either bullish or bearish. How come both goes negative. Can you please elaborate the term permium getting cooling off. I didn’t get it.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Volatility drives the premium higher. Higher the vol, higher is the premium. So when the volatility cools off, the premiums also cool off, and this is applicable to both calls and puts.

  175. Saikat says:

    Sir, Today (24.10.2018) i want to buy SBIN nov 360 ce @ RS.0.10. Bid is taken by system of kite and also market price was Rs.0.10 too.
    But not executing.please why it is happening? it is not rejecting but pending how?
    sbin current price was 256

    • Saikat,
      Check the Marketdepth for the scrip. Although the LTP was 0.1, there might not have been sellers at 0.1, your order will get executed only if a seller wants to match your price.

  176. Devarshi Dave says:

    How the ltp and strike rates are defined/calculated?

  177. Dheeraj says:

    Hi Karthik,

    In this module you mentioned if market will go up and the Spot price is above the Strike price at expiry, Call Option Buyer makes profit. Moreover, P & L statement would be difference of (Spot Price – Strike Price) – Premium. If there is a difference of 40 Points in Nifty (High) on expiry, is the profit for Call Buyer : 400 * Lot Size.


  178. Ajeet says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I have completed Module 5 and revising it again to clear all my doubts. I have a doubt here. Before buying/writing nifty option i like to check the volatility so that i can get a range. Assume i am bullish on the market and plan to buy 11600CE and based on my plan which volatility should i take into consideration? Is it the IV of the NIFTY or India VIX or is it the IV of 11600CE?
    Hope i am not confusing!


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Ajeet, just for Nifty you can consider the ViX. For individual stocks, you can consider the historical volatility.

      • Ajeet says:

        Noted. Your advise will help me indeed to plan the trade. I also wanted to thank you for the work that you have been doing through versity teachings and I wish you achieve success in all your endeavors. Thank you again for the quick reply.


  179. Shyam says:

    Hi kartik sir,

    1.Yesterday one of my colleague bought OTM bank nifty 26700 ce for 11/– and the price today went upto 280-290/-. Now I recall you had written about effect of theta how premium starts decaying and becomes worthless on expiry day trading. As such I avoided this trade . Also max pain was at 26300 .

    2.Now I was also monitoring the 26900 strike. i was surprised to see premium rose till 100 odd rupees and it started falling and closed at 27/- at the end hour? How did this happen when the bank nifty underlying price closed at 26939

    Where did I go wrong in my analysis? Also india vix rose after 2 pm. Doesnt this mean the premium should be falling ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Shyam, there is a lot of speculative activity on Bank Nifty, weekly expiry. People buy these options like lottery tickets. Is this sustainable? I’m not sure. You may luck out a couple of times but overtime buying options on expiry day and hoping to get lucky is not a great strategy according to me.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Shyam, there is a lot of speculative activity on Bank Nifty, weekly expiry. People buy these options like lottery tickets. Is this sustainable? I’m not sure. You may luck out a couple of times but over time buying options on expiry day and hoping to get lucky is not a great strategy according to me.

  180. Subrata says:

    Can you explain why the strike price of 2000 was not selected. I understand that the premium paid is much higher , but the break-even is at a lower level which is closer to the present spot price?

  181. Naveen says:

    Hi, new to trading world. Sorry if the question is stupid.
    Reliance is currently trading at 1100. It seems highly unlikely that it will breach the 1000 mark.
    So if i buy the 1000 CE (108 premium) and hold it till expiry, and say it ends up near 1070 on expiry, will i make any profit?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It depends on how much premium you have paid. Suppose you pay 108, and the spot expires at 1070, then the premium will be 70. So you’d make a loss because, for an op[tion worth 70, you have paid 108. You will make a profit, only if the option is worth more than 108, which means the spot has to be 1108 or more.

      Good luck.

  182. Chirag I Sharma says:

    Please confirm if my understanding is right-

    If today on a 200CE of Yes Bank, premium is ₹8 and market price is 194, then people who are paying ₹8 premium are expecting by the end of expiry that the market price will be greater than 200+8=208 ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thats right, upon expiry their breakeven price is 208. However, the premium can go higher before expiry and the buyer can exit if he profitable.

  183. SUHAS says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I am new to Option theory. What I would like to know is I am planning to do only Intraday trade with Options. So Can i do so the same like just buying Calls and selling the same on intraday depending up on the increase or decrease in Premium value?

  184. SATPAL says:

    PE STRIKE PRICE 1,180.00 PREMIUM PAID FOR PE 10.40 600.00 6,240.00

    Possible value Premium paid instric vlaue LSIZE P&L
    1,180.00 10.40 – (10.40) 600 (6,240.00)
    1,175.00 10.40 5.00 (5.40) 600 (3,240.00)
    1,170.00 10.40 10.00 (0.40) 600 (240.00)
    1,165.00 10.40 15.00 4.60 600 2,760.00
    1,160.00 10.40 20.00 9.60 600 5,760.00
    1,155.00 10.40 25.00 14.60 600 8,760.00
    1,150.00 10.40 30.00 19.60 600 11,760.00
    1,145.00 10.40 35.00 24.60 600 14,760.00
    1,140.00 10.40 40.00 29.60 600 17,760.00
    1,135.00 10.40 45.00 34.60 600 20,760.00
    1,130.00 10.40 50.00 39.60 600 23,760.00

    4 WHICH ONE WILL MORE PROFITABLE A PE value which I don’t know what will at diff price.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Satpal, I find it hard to figure out the table here. Maybe put it on Google drive and share? Also, if you follow the excel construction used in the chapter, you will get the flow yourself.

  185. vikash says:

    I bought 1 lot nifty option call11200 at 60 premium, My queries are below.
    1. If i buy one more lot with same strike price but premium 38, then it will show average value in position ?? ex: 2 lot avg premium (60+38/2=49 premium) right ??
    2. If i buy 1 lot with different strike price ex: 11300 & premium 50; then it will show average value or different position ?

    Pls clear my doubts.

  186. Swithin says:

    Thanks a lot for the information. Can you please answer one question: On zerodha how do I search for options? Say a call option of 10500 strike price expiring on 28th feb?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Swithin, on Kite;s marketwatch, search for ‘Nifty 10500 CE/PE’ and you will find it easily.

      • Swithin Kunder says:

        Thanks a lot for such a quick reply Karthik, much appreciated. Just one more thing, when I’m searching for it, it’s not showing me 10500 call expiring on 28th feb, why is that so..it’s just showing 21st feb expiry..also when placing the order, doesn’t it show the live rates on top like other platforms do? thanks once again for your support

  187. Srinathjayanna says:

    1.what is atm,itm,otm since you have used these words in the comments section so many times.
    2.And should we place the stop-loss on strike price or premiums.
    3.For initiating a trade in options should we look at options chart or futures chart for price action.

  188. vishwadeep verma says:

    very easy explanation. Makes understanding all the more interesting. Thank you for the same.

    At the same time, I see that at a when the spot price is less, the premium paid is substracted, where as when the spot rice is more, the premium is added. Can you please explain the same in more details ??

    Vishwadeep Verma

  189. vishwadeep verma says:

    How can we attach screenshots from NSE if we have to understand something from the option chain ?

  190. jake says:

    Can someone explain the meaning of all the columns present in the screenshot of the excel file?

  191. suresh says:

    2 days back opened zerodha account.
    I have added 4000 funds to the account and tried to purchase banknifty 20 lot at 60 ptice, order is getting REJECTED. Tried many times with others as well. Can you please help me to place the order?

  192. Raju says:

    Hi i brought a call option ICICIPRULI 350CE, this has been expired ATM.. what will be the impact.

  193. Harsha says:

    What is the max limit(no of lots) to buy nifty index options per trade.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I think it is 100 lots per order.

      • Harsha says:

        Thanks for you reply Karthik. One more question, I know there is brokerage calculator in Zerodha to calculate brokerage for Nifty options. I have confusion about that. Can you let me know in the calculator, do I have to input the no.of lots or total quantity to calculate brokerage? Please let me know the brokerage for Nifty options for 50 lots (50*75) in Zerodha?

  194. PANKAJ says:

    Please define term
    1) Exercsing Option

    2 ) Square off option

    Please use simple language so that I can understand the difference between them

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) When you hold a profitable option to expiry, then its called exercising.
      2) Square off is when you close a position before expiry

  195. PANKAJ says:

    Suppose I square off my position before expiry
    Then can I say I also exercise my position

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, if you square off before expiry, you cannot exercise. This was possible with American option though…but NSE changed all contracts to European options few years ago.

  196. harsh says:

    in the above example, bajaj auto option,
    spot price is 2026.9.
    1. i buy call of 2200, i need to pay (125*.85) 106.25 and brokerage right?
    2. spot price comes to 2150, what will be value of my premium? if a. 20 days are left b. 2 days are lefft? approximate please so that i can get a bit clear. (do i make profit if stock doesn’t go till strike price)
    3. how to square off my position? do i need to sell? do i require margin to sell while squaring off?
    4. what is exercising position? will it get sold automatically?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, that’s premium plus the applicable brokerage and charges. For the exact details, you can check this – https://zerodha.com/brokerage-calculator
      2) Hard to point the exact premium value, but you’d have incurred a loss here though
      3) You can goto the positions tab and click on exit to square off. No need for margins when you sq off the position
      4) Yes

  197. harsh says:

    I find a very volatile stock. its at support price and can move up or down very quickly. if i buy call option and a put option, will it be profitable if stock moves in any direction? risk is limited to amount invested in buying call or put right?

  198. Santosh says:

    Today I wanted to buy option BANKNIFTY 1th APR 29500 PE @ Rs.20 but order got rejected giving reason Strike price is outside the allowed range. Try strike closer to spot price. When I google it, I found that it’s because ZERODHA might be having OI of Rs.500 crores or 15% of the total OI. Does it mean I wont be able to buy option of my choice if ZERODHA is having more OI in market. Is there any way I can buy option without restriction of ZERODHA OI and at what price.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Santosh, yes, unfortunately, this is true. We do have OI restriction around weekly Bank Nifty expiry.

  199. Nandish says:

    Hi, I want to buy YESBANK 250 CE(current value is 256) as of today at a premium of 11rs and the quantity(1750) on APR 18th
    1. If the price becomes 268 on 25th APR can I sell it? or should I wait till the month expires? will I incur profit or loss?
    2.What happens if I sell in a CE option? or buy in a PE option?(can you give an example)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) You can sell it anytime you wish, no need to wait till expiry
      2) If you sell a CE, you will receive the premium.

      I’d suggest you read the other chapters to get a sense of how these options work.

  200. Sulu says:

    Hello sir
    I had bought 1lot of 2’000shares of INDIANB NSE 300CE@8 of expiry 25thApril2019.
    The premium value went down to 0.7 by now.
    The strike price by now is 265.
    What to do,please suggest.
    1.Should I buy 2more lots@ 0.7 to avg. the premium?
    2.Will it be null by expiary?
    3.By strategies is there any chance the premium price will go up to 4or5?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) If you are bullish, then you should. Really depends on how comfortable and confident you are on the position
      2) Your directional view has to pan out by expiry
      3) No one can figure an answer for that 🙂

  201. GouthamDavid says:

    Sir as all Options are Limit based orders.There is no way to trail the profits right??
    Except modifying the SL and target is possible once order is executed.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you need to keep modifying the order to trail your profits.

      • GouthamDavid says:

        1.How to find the regular MIS margin amount for nifty and banknifty weekly options when shorting either call or put.
        2.currently BO/CO orders are possible for only options on stocks excluding nifty and banknifty right.
        3.Will there be margin benifit for MIS orders on banknifty weekly options when we hedge by shorting both call and put OTMs.
        How to find the required amount on hedging?
        4.sir why NiftyIT weekly options are not trading.Any specific reason?

  202. Khilendra says:

    I purchased 2 lot of Nifty 11250CE of 16 May 19 expiry @0.95. I did not square off on expiry on 16 May 19. Nifty closed on expiry I.e 16 May 19 at 11257.10(closing value) . My option become in the money. When I got contract note, it shows my position sell at Rs 0 and account did not credited the intrinsic value of Rs 7.10 – 0.95. I should get the profit of 6.15×150=922.50. Please clarify

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Khilendra, that is because ITM options attract a huge STT if exercised, to an extent where you will end up paying much higher than the profits earned. Hence your option was not exercised.

  203. Bala says:

    Hi sir, my doubt is not related to this topic but in general options.. For a stock, each strike price has a premium and charts, do that charts are also moved upon SnR? I mean let’s say SBIN 360 CE premium is 3.60.. Can we see the chart of 360 CE and say 2rs is a support and 6rs is a resistance w.r.t history? Or simply the movement and premium changes is based on the underlying stock buyers and sellers?

    • Bala says:

      And I’m asking this doubt because I see some members saying buy this call option and make SL at 6rs or 4rs.. How can they say that because the real supp is found in underlying stock only

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Bala, it is best not to look at the charts of options. For trading options, always look at the spot charts. Take trading decisions based on that.

  204. Harsha says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Thanks for your replies on this thread.

    What happens if I have not sold my option contract on the day of expiry?

    Example: I have bought 12000 put @Rs.50 with contract expiry June 06,2019. The closing price was Rs.141.5 and I did not sold my contract. What would happen in this case?

  205. SSK says:

    I see that you have mentioned the profit for the buyer of the call option raises exponentially when the spot price is above strike price.

    From the above explanations, I can see that
    profit = SpotPrice – StrikePrice – premium (Assuming spot price is above strike price)
    here Strike price and premium are constants. So, I see that profit is a linear increase wrt Spot price rise.
    How did you claim it is exponential?

    Am I missing something?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If it is linear, then for every 1 point increase in spot, the premium should go up by 1 point. This is not true, especially for OTM options. For these OTM options, for every 1 point increase in spot, the premium goes up many folds, hence the term exponential.

  206. sandip says:

    Hello, if I am buying a call option since I expect the price to go up, then why the yellow region in call option exists where the strike price is lower than the current market price, also why the premiums are so high?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You must be talking about the moneyness of the option, I’d suggest you read this module to get complete clarity on this, Sandip. Thanks.

  207. sandip says:

    I have read till chapter 6, I am having little trouble understanding this particular chart, my question is-
    1) I will always buy the strike price which is more than the spot price for call option, so why strike prices lower than spot price is shown?
    2)If strike price little below spot price was shown in yellow it can be said the option has gone now ITM but it was OTM before, but strike price till 1600 price exist which is too much below spot price. is it that the spot price was below 1600 when option started??
    (currently reading chapter 7)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) This should depend on time to expiry, delta, vega, and of course your directional view. So you cannot always stick to a single strike selection strategy
      2) I’d suggest you read through all the chapters, towards the end you will get complete clarity.

  208. Mani says:

    Hello Sir, I am a trend follower or breakout trader and I am trading full time for last three years, that too only in nifty futures, thanks to varsity’s technical analysis and position sizing module, I have built my account from 14 lots to 20 lots in these three years. I am using a 15 min time frame, since my lot size has increased slippage has become a huge problem now, to solve this I have decided to buy monthly ATM options, while trading futures if I were to carry forward my position I used to rollover one day before expiry, in option buying I have decided to rollover 10 days before expiry to avoid theta decay. Usually my position days varies between few minutes to 2 months. My aim is to make 75% of futures points in options and to build my lot size to few thousands.

    My strike selection plan
    for long position:
    if nifty at 11665, buy 11700 option contract
    if nifty at 11625, buy 11600 option contract

    I would like to know your opinion on my option buying decision, will my rollover idea work in options, is mid month expiry option contracts liquid enough to roll over ten days before current month expiry?

    Is my strike selection for ATM option buying with delta of 0.5(approx) correct sir?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Mani, you seem to be sticking to ATM strike, which is good. I think Nifty and Bank Nifty’s mid-month contracts have decent liquidity to roll over. But the key trigger here is your identification of breakout. If this is right, then I guess rest should be fine 🙂

  209. Suryakant Borade says:

    Hello Sir,
    your such notes are so much useful to me. But u doesn’t explain about strike price of Options. Did you explain it?

  210. BHARTI A. T. says:

    Hello Kartik ,
    what if i am having 10,000 in my zerodha account and i buy 10 lots of bank nifty options(CE/PE) depending on my view. While selling the options to book profit/loss, how much money should be there in my account? Can i sell all lots at a time or do i need to offload one by one lot?
    Please help me to know the scenario.

  211. BHARTI A. T. says:

    Sorry i forgot to mention here that i bought options at 10/- premium.

  212. BHARTI A. T. says:


  213. Guru says:

    Yesterday I buy dabur Aug 450 CE so premium is 1.80 and lot size is 1250 so if end of the expiry date spot Price taking strike Price that means spot price around 470 so complsury to sell a option call before end of the day or end of the of expiry

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sorry, Guru, I’m unable to understand your query. If you spot price is higher than the premium (upon exiry), then you are supposed to buy back as these are ITM option.

  214. Vineet says:

    Hello sir,
    Suppose i bought voltas CE 600 @ 15 and spot price being 602…if stock price moves to 605 still i will be able to make profit if premium moves to 18 but stock price stays below strike price+premium i.e.,(600+15=Rs.615)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Vineet, you can sell the option anytime you wish and pocket the premium. No need to wait till expiry.

  215. PRAGNESH says:


  216. SHIVAM VERMA says:

    Sir can I buy Banknifty 25200 PE @20 rs if I have 3000rs. in my trading account?
    Will I get leverage or I need full cash?

  217. Shivam Pandiya says:

    Thank you for the great relevant content. I would like to know the chart setup on the 1st chart on this page of the bajaj auto. Could you please share the settings?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thanks, Shivam. This is an end of day (or daily) chart with 21×10 simple MA with volume and RSI layover.

  218. Munnam Murali Reddy (ST 8018) says:

    Even, I went through all the question and answers and your valuable reading material, I don’t understand one thing that what happens on the Expiry date if the stock is trading much beyond the Strike price. Is it always the difference between premium paid at the time of purchase & on the day of expiry only profit.

  219. Munnam Murali Reddy says:

    Sir, One more question. If we don’t sell options on expiry date, it will automatically be squared off either in loss or profit. Any fine for not squring off options on expiry date?

  220. Swaroop Bhave says:

    My question is how can we derive profit based on
    profit = SpotPrice – StrikePrice – premium?
    When I tried to buy call, suppose SBIN NOV 330 CE where current spot price is 323.95. For 330 as strike price, I can see 6.15 as my premium.
    Now if I go to zerodha, search for SBIN NOV 330 CE and click buy, I see the premium amount 6.15 to buy and not the actual spot price.
    Which is as per your explanation that we invest only premium amount and expect SBIN to reach 330.
    My confusion is, if I am buying and selling premium amount only,
    how can we say profit = SpotPrice – StrikePrice – premium?
    practically, I I go to square off, ultimately what I will see is I buyed at 6.15 and sell at 7.15 which gives me profit of Rs.1 per share.
    now increase in premium by Rs.1 doesnt clearly mean my spot price increased by Rs.1
    Then what is different here comparing it with buying and selling equity stocks VS buying and selling options premium?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Swaroop, if you choose to hold the position till expiry, then – profit = SpotPrice – StrikePrice – premium, is applicable. If you decide to buy and sell before expiry, then only the difference between the buy/sell premium matters.

  221. Sahil says:

    Hello sir my question is.
    I bought ce at 5rs. On 15nov and if on 27 nov ce is at 10 rs so i will sell and my profit is 5rs. But i didnt sell on 27 nov and i sold it on 28 nov which is experiy day so it will work as series of trades in options and give me different Between My selling and buying price or it will work like breakeven pont whre it should have to go higher than that point pls ans..

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sahil, what was the price at which it was sold. You’ll make the difference between the buy and sell price of the premium.

  222. anil says:

    dear sir,
    i have some query regarding OPTION CALL / PUT.
    1) Sir suppose i buy BANK NIFTY 1 lot PUT option Strike Price @ Rs.31000 ——-premium trading @ Rs.370 and current BANK NIFTY market Price trading @Rs.31500.

    if market fall down because of some correction or any other reason Bannifty go down to @Rs.31500 to @Rs.31050 and my premium Value increases from @Rs.370 to @ @Rs. 500 so i square off my position i will be in profits or whats to be happen otherwise i loss my money

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you square off, then you make a profit here, Anil. You need not have to wait till expiry to book profits.

  223. Anuragh says:

    Hello Karthik,

    How is the Strike price calculated for any share , if it’s decided by the exchange then i have the following questions
    1) how do i know which one to choose from the list of many call options for a product
    2) If the Buyer has to decide the Strike price for any share , how does he derive the strike price at which the he can book the maximum profit
    Thankyou In advance

  224. Mridula Chakravarty says:

    I want to trade in F&O Segment. But the following message came at the time of giving the order-

    This segment is not enabled for your account. To enable, create a ticket on support.zerodha.com

    So, pl. do the needful at your earliest.

  225. Mridula Chakravarty says:


    Many thanks for your quick reply.

    Now, my question what is the min. amt. of investment for option trading. Suppose, at present the CMP of nifty put option for Feb 12100 is Rs. 150 and I have Rs. 15000 in my A/C. Can i buy it?

    Moreover, could i use AMO in this segment?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The minimum about to buy is lot size * premium.

      Nifty Lot size – 75
      Premium – 150
      = 75*150

      So you can buy the option with the amount you have in your account.

  226. SHUBHAM DHUMAL says:

    Hello Sir .
    I have gone through all Zerodha Modules,Was a very nice Experience .
    Sir if I’m long on stock and i have set stoploss, is it possible that stock goes down without hitting stoploss??
    I mean what if market opens below stoploss Price??

  227. Sandeep Mishra says:

    Sir ,
    One thing i just do not understand , why there is Multiple CE (call option ) shown which is even lower to CMP and shows with very high premium ,and if we buy it profit will go in which direction . Fo ex – If CMP of X stock is 450 and we buy a CE of 430 with a premium of 10 Rs . and we reach the strike price of 430 , will the premium increase or decrees . just dont understand why this doesnt call PE instead of CE if it going below market price , please help sir.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sandeep, for any underlying there are multiple CEs and PEs. I’d suggest you look at the moneyness of the options chapter to get an understanding of this.

  228. Prakash says:

    how can i get more strike price ?

  229. Aditya says:

    Hi Sir,
    Please clarify my doubt related to intraday option trading.

    1.If I buy a call or put option and want to square off the position intraday before 03:20 PM. What is the process ? Is it similar to the intraday equity trading?
    I mean we buy a stock and then place one target order and one SL order to square off.
    2. I read that selling options require full margin . So if I place a target order and one SL order ( to square off my intraday buy position) , will it require full margin amount in my account to place the order.
    I know I sound silly but I want to clarify before I start placing intraday order in Options. 😊

  230. Aditya says:

    Thanks for the reply.
    Is it mandatory to place a BO order for intraday options trading ?
    I use limit order sell and stop limit order sell to place my target and stop loss order respectively ( to square off my buy position).
    Thanks in advance.

  231. Mishra says:

    I am new in trading..your varsity is really helping me a lot. So I must say thank you very much for your efforts. I have few doubts in my intraday trading with weekly options in Nifty only. ( I buy options and never sell only for intraday.)

    1) I have confusion about which chart to use for option trading Nifty Spot or Nifty futures for intraday..? Right now I watch both of them but get confused because I see clear support and resistance in Nifty spot than Nifty futures but I also see that option prices react more to Nifty futures..I have to select any one of them so please suggest me based on your experiences in stock market.

    2) Also in order to choose ATM options to trade, which strike price to be considered..?? Nifty spot strike or Nifty futures strike..?

    Thanks in advance.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Glad you like the content on Varsity 🙂

      1) You can use Nifty spot
      2) The strike is only on the spot, not on future

  232. vikkey says:

    I also who will people get to buy the CE or PE with 0.05 price and all the sudden the price will go high. How is this happening .
    Second, we can buy only if someone is ready to sell their CE or PE, but who is the first person to buy it and how is it possible to do it.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yeah, people buy (or sell) this as a lottery and hope that it clicks, nothing more to it 🙂

  233. Mishra says:

    Thank you very much for your reply..!! I am also reading lessons from innerworth and always stay excited for new chapters…!!

  234. Abdul Maajid says:

    many times i tried to understand Futures n options but failed.
    Thanks to u Sir & Varsity . Finally I’m getting there.
    1 Question Sir.
    Suppose I buyed call option by paying premium of 6rs.
    At the date of expiry premium shoots up to 10 rs.
    before expiry can i exit the position and make a profit of 4 rs ?

  235. Abdul Maajid says:

    Is futures (also options ) settled in T+2 cycle?
    thank u sir

  236. Sohil says:

    Hello Karthik,
    Is there a way to view strategy payoff charts in Zerodha ?

  237. Abdul Maajid says:

    i know placing order in MIS in FNO will let me square off immediately .
    my question is sir, after placed a regular order on futures or options (say longcall) can i square off my position immediately ( say after 10 mins ) ?
    (doubt regarding settlement … ie T+1 )
    thank u sir

  238. Akash says:

    In derivatives segment of stocks, apart from Futures and Options, are there any more derivatives ?


  239. Akash says:


    An option buyer (be it call or put) has limited risk but unlimited profit. In spite of this, maximum option buyers lose money. Most of the times profit is made by option seller (though it is limited profit). Why is it so? Is it because, out of three possible scenarios, two gets in favour of option seller or something other else ?


  240. subhadip ghosh says:

    Today Reliance Spot price is 1217.75 but there is CE options to buy at 900 CE, Now looking at market scenario chances are less that REL will go that much down. So why someone is selling that option ?
    Reliance is an example but there so many other stocks 99% will not fetch the price but still srike price is available , can you please explain.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Markets are at the end of day an ocean of different opinions, this is exactly why trades happen 🙂

  241. Jsy says:

    I’m nifty call and put work. My result profit less. But loss.more. any platform available. Setting work auth. Buy sell.
    Paying platform

  242. Sahil bansal says:

    Hello sir
    I want to know that.
    If nifty option is not showing its expiry date then what will be the expiry date ??? I want to buy nifty option in the first week and sell in to 3rd week . But i m confused because nifty option doesnt show its expirt date .

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Buy the regular monthly option for this, Sahil. The expiry is seen when you look for the option in the Marketwatch.

  243. pratish kawathekar says:

    Dear sir,
    I have two questions, 1st if the spot price is higher than the call price, eg: sport price of ITC is 184 now and i am buying a Call option of 160 at 27. Then how would it will get executed?
    And 2nd :Could you please explain why the price gets 0 when the expiry is near, does it mean that i am guaranteed to make a loss if i don’t sell my premium before expiry?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) How will it get executed as in?
      2) The price will head to 0 only if the option is worthless. Not all option premiums head to zero.

  244. Shravam says:


    Is it advisable to average the call Options for any given stock, whose stock price is coming down? If not,what should Call buyer do to mitigate the loss?


  245. pratish kawathekar says:

    Sir referring to my question asked above.
    If Spot price is 180 and i am buying a call option of 160 while the price is above the strike price. Then its clear that i am going to gain profits right?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Hmm, no really. The premium you pay would be quite high anyway right. Also for you to be profitable, the from the time you buy, the spot has to move up a lot more higher.

  246. George says:


    Let’s assume I bought the call “CENTURYTEX APR 500 CE” at the Rs.16 premium. This means I have the right to buy 100 shares of CENTURYTEX before the end of April at the price 500 per share right?

    Now, by 29th of April, I want exercise my right of buying CENTURYTEX at the predetermined price. (which means I don’t want to sell the Option call at a higher price, instead I want to buy the actual 100 shares of CENTURYTEX @ 500). How do I do this? Who will sell this 100 shares of CENTURYTEX to me?

    How’s this to be done in Zerodha Kite Website?


  247. GEORGE VICTOR K J says:

    Thank you very much, Karthik!


    sir good evening i am new to zerodha while going through varsity option chapter.
    i have a question,if my spot price go higher than call price than how to book my profit.
    what is the next step on dash board.
    please help explaining practical aspect

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Assuming you are long, you can sell it just like you would sell a stock. That is a square off order.



  250. Mohit says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I wanna start trading in options. But before that I have few clarifications that I need, I hope you can help me with those.

    Considering the Platform Zerodha. Suppose I buy Call option for PNB at strike 34 for May 31(Can I buy options less than the lot, if not why ?). Now let’s say I have bought a lot at 1.95 (Approx) and paid (1.95 * 8300). Now on 31st May will I get the delivery If the option is exercised ? or I will get the IV if it’s positive ? Can I sell these options prior to Expiry ?

  251. AReddy says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Firstly thanking you for this wonderful material to gain understanding of option concepts.

    I have a scenario which is confusing me a bit, consider there are 3 market participants: A,B and C.

    A is the call option buyer, B is the call option seller, now the trading steps are as follows,
    1. A buys the option contract paying a premium of Rs.10 for 100 shares for a strike price @2000
    2. B receives this premium amount.
    3. A sees a jump in the premium from Rs.10 to Rs.12.
    4. A decides to sell this option contract for a new premium of Rs.12 to pocket the profit.
    5. C is looking to buy an option contract and finds the contract which A is selling to be an profitable/interesting one.

    Now my question is,
    1. For the contract that C is buying from A, will the strike price remain the same i.e. which A had bought initially from B the option contract for @2000?
    2. Now as A buys and then Sells the option contract to C, will A exit the market?
    3. Now will C and B be the new partners in the option contract? If Yes, the premium between both the C and B will not remain the same as B received a premium of Rs.1000 initially and C paid a premium of Rs.1200 to A to buy the contract. will not this create a conflict in P&L when they exercise on expiry?.

  252. a k r says:

    Sir, if i buy an option at 0.05 for 2000/- and if it expires without any movement, would i get any of my money back or would i lose entire 2000/- ?

  253. Prashanth Kumar says:

    Let’s say current Nifty is @9350 and I want to buy Nifty @strike price of Rs 9400@Rs88 premium and still has 15days for expiry. Now on the same day, I see premium shoots up to Rs 110/-, in this context:
    1. When I sell the bought call, do I still make a profit? The reason being, it has not yet hit the strike price?
    2. Should I actually wait for 9400+88 and anything above I will make profit?


  254. Sagar says:

    Today I buy call of nifty apr 9300 @ 161.7 (MIS order) and sell @ 167. (4 lot =300)
    Then I again buy same @ 125, 1lot MIS order but dut to trading time limit I changed the MIS position to Normal.
    Now second order showing buying price @ 154.36. which was buy @ 125.
    Please explain how this possible.

  255. Sagar says:

    Sorry I figured it out.

  256. Sagar says:

    I guess I am in bit trouble now, I want to buy call @ 125 but it is 154.36

  257. Prashanth Kumar says:

    Today I bought Nifty call option @9300 for a premium of Rs 100, but in few mins nifty had crossed 9300 mark , also premium shot up and I could still see the premium is going up when the strike price has already been hit. Any reason someone would still buy a call option when they know Nifty has already crossed 9300? I mean everyone can just buy this and make money right?

  258. Prashanth Kumar says:

    This is a bit confusing right, all the while we read that after strike price buyer starts making a profit. Now, in this case, why would there be a seller who would still want to sell an option of old strike price when the market price is higher than that. He knows in advance he is going to make a loss? Am I missing something here?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Markets is all about different opinions, right? If I feel that the markets will crash, I may as well write strike which have a higher premium right?

  259. Prashanth Kumar says:

    This makes sense but aren’t the contracts made by NSE on different strike prices? In OI chart i still see a strike price of 7000 @2300 today when markets are at 9480 levels… I think at the end of the day it’s all about ppl sentiments in the market 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yeah, new strikes are introduced as and when markets move, which as you rightly mentioned is a function of human sentiment 🙂

  260. Rajath says:

    Dear sir,
    On 30th April 2020(today) the bank nifty while closing at 3.30 pm was 21481 but still the bank nifty ce with strike price 21500 expiring on same day had a value of Rs.33 even at 3.30 pm. Later the closing price of Bank nifty become 21534 based on weighed average method.
    In the above case it seemed that the closing price of Bank nifty was predicted even before the closing bell so the call option with the strike price 21500 had the value of Rs. 33 inspite it being 19 points below the strike price.
    How is it possible to predict the closing prices in advance?

  261. Prashanth Kumar says:

    I was looking at option chat and had few questions on the same.

    1. Today, for 7th May 2020 expiry for 10000 strike price on the Option side I see a premium of Rs 63/-. Checking the same strike price for 30th Dec 2020, I see a premium of Rs 742/-. Why is there such a huge premium for very far contract options?
    I mean ideally one can always be confident that 10000 strike is easily possible in 2 months with the current levels of nifty right?

    2. I understand that there is a time factor that comes into play, but if I buy a very far option call, in this case, December @742 as and when the day progress, would the premium fall even if the nifty is inching towards this strike price?

    3. As an investor, can they be smart to always buy far option contracts and play safe?

    4. If the premium moves up for 7th May contracts, would also the premium move up for Dec 2020 contracts?

    4. Like we have charts for stocks, where do I find all moving prices in a day for options?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) The difference in premium is attributed to the time value of money
      2) The premium will decline owing to the time value, but if the underlying increases, the premium can go up
      3) No, that does not work all the time
      4) Sorry, I’m not sure what you mean by this.

  262. Prathamesh Deshpande says:

    Does the rules of options buying apply to company shares or its same for NIFTY and BANKNIFTY as well ? the maximum amount a money a buyer losses is the premium paid in CE ?

  263. Prashanth Kumar says:

    Had few questions on options chains:

    1. Looking at 7th May 2020 option data, looking at one of the Puts for the strike of 8950, I see there is
    Ask qty: 4125 (no of sellers are selling at this strike)
    OI: 808 ( number of option contracts available)

    1. If the number of contracts is 808, wondering how there are so many sellers?

    2. Is it like one contract for one buyer One seller or many buyers and sellers for one contract?

    3. If Q2 is the way, then when does one really run out of contracts?


  264. Prashanth Kumar says:

    Just trying to understand, for a future date Nifty 21sy May expiry, I see bid and ask prices but there are no contracts for most of the strike prices, but for Dec 2020 expiry, I see lot of contracts. Wondering how is this possible, will the system allow to place bids when there are no contracts? Can you please explain this a bit?

    • Karthik Rangappa says: