## 10.1 – Model Thinking

The previous chapter gave you a sneak peek into the first option Greek – the Delta. Besides discussing the delta, there was another hidden agenda in the previous chapter – to set you on a ‘model thinking’ path. Let me explain what I mean by this – the previous chapter opened up a new window to evaluate options. The window threw open different option trading perspectives – hopefully you now no longer think about options in a one-dimensional perspective.

For instance going forward if you have view on markets (bullish for example) you **may not** strategize your trade this way – ‘My view is bullish, therefore it makes sense to either buy a call option or collect premium by selling a put option’.

Rather you may strategize this way – “My view is bullish as I expect the market to move by 40 points, therefore it makes sense to buy an option which has a delta of 0.5 or more as the option is expected to gain at least 20 points for the given 40 point move in the market”.

See the difference between the two thought processes? While the former is a bit naïve and casual, the latter is well defined and quantitative in nature. The expectation of a 20 point move in the option premium was an outcome of a formula that we explored in the previous chapter –

**Expected change in option premium = Option Delta * Points change in underlying**

The above formula is just one piece in the whole game plan. As and when we discover the other Greeks, the evaluation metric becomes more quantitative and in the process the trade selection becomes more scientifically streamlined. Point is – the thinking going forward will be guided by equations and numbers and ‘casual trading thoughts’ will have very little scope. I know there are many traders who trade just with a few random thoughts and some may even be successful. However this is not everybody’s cup of tea. The odds are better when you put numbers in perspective – and this happens when you develop ‘model thinking’.

So please do keep model thinking framework in perspective while analyzing options, as this will help you setup systematic trades.

## 10.2 – Delta versus spot price

In the previous chapter we looked at the significance of Delta and also understood how one can use delta to evaluate the expected change in premium. Before we proceed any further, here is a quick recap from the previous chapter –

- Call options has a +ve delta. A Call option with a delta of 0.4 indicates that for every 1 point gain/loss in the underlying the call option premium gains/losses 0.4 points
- Put options has a –ve delta. A Put option with a delta of -0.4 Indicates that for every 1 point loss/gain in the underlying the put option premium gains/losses 0.4 points
- OTM options have a delta value between 0 and 0.5, ATM option has a delta of 0.5, and ITM option has a delta between 0.5 and 1.

Let me take cues from the 3^{rd} point here and make some deductions. Assume Nifty Spot is at 8312, strike under consideration is 8400, and option type is CE (Call option, European).

- What is the approximate Delta value for the 8400 CE when the spot is 8312?
- Delta should be between 0 and 0.5 as 8400 CE is OTM. Let us assume Delta is 0.4

- Assume Nifty spot moves from 8312 to 8400, what do you think is the Delta value?
- Delta should be around 0.5 as the 8400 CE is now an ATM option

- Further assume Nifty spot moves from 8400 to 8500, what do you think is the Delta value?
- Delta should be closer to 1 as the 8400 CE is now an ITM option. Let us say 0.8.

- Finally assume Nifty Spot cracks heavily and drops back to 8300 from 8500, what happens to delta?
- With the fall in spot, the option has again become an OTM from ITM, hence the value of delta also falls from 0.8 to let us say 0.35.

- What can you deduce from the above 4 points?
- Clearly as and when the spot value changes, the moneyness of an option changes, and therefore the delta also changes.

Now this is a very important point here – **the delta changes with changes in the value of spot**. Hence delta is a variable and not really a fixed entity. Therefore if an option has a delta of 0.4, the value is likely to change with the change in the value of the underlying.

Have a look at the chart below – it captures the movement of delta versus the spot price. The chart is a generic one and not specific to any particular option or strike as such. As you can see there are two lines –

- The blue line captures the behavior of the Call option’s delta (varies from 0 to 1)
- The red line captures the behavior of the Put option’s delta (varies from -1 to 0)

Let us understand this better –

This is a very interesting chart, and to begin with I would suggest you look at only the blue line and ignore the red line completely. The blue line represents the delta of a call option. The graph above captures few interesting characteristics of the delta; let me list them for you (meanwhile keep this point in the back of your mind – as and when the spot price changes, the moneyness of the option also changes) –

- Look at the X axis – starting from left the moneyness increases as the spot price traverses from OTM to ATM to ITM
- Look at the delta line (blue line) – as and when the spot price increases so does the delta
- Notice at OTM the delta is flattish near 0 – this also means irrespective of how much the spot price falls ( going from OTM to deep OTM) the option’s delta will remain at 0
- Remember the call option’s delta is lower bound by 0

- When the spot moves from OTM to ATM the delta also starts to pick up (remember the option’s moneyness also increases)
- Notice how the delta of option lies within 0 to 0.5 range for options that are less than ATM

- At ATM, the delta hits a value of 0.5
- When the spot moves along from the ATM towards ITM the delta starts to move beyond the 0.5 mark
- Notice the delta starts to fatten out when it hits a value of 1
- This also implies that as and when the delta moves beyond ITM to say deep ITM the delta value does not change. It stays at its maximum value of 1.

You can notice similar characteristics for the Put Option’s delta (red line).

## 10.3 – The Delta Acceleration

If you are fairly involved in the options world you may have heard of bizarre stories of how traders double or triple their money by trading OTM option. If you have not heard such stories, let me tell you one – It was 17^{th} May 2009 (Sunday), the election results were declared, the UPA Government got re-elected at the center and Dr.Manmohan Singh came back as the country’s Prime Minister to serve his 2^{nd} term. Stock markets likes stability at the center and we all knew that the market would rally the next day i.e. 18^{th} May 2009. The previous day Nifty had closed at 3671.

Zerodha was not born then, we were just a bunch of traders trading our own capital along with a few clients. One of our associates had taken a huge risk few days prior to 17^{th} May – he bought far off options (OTM) worth Rs.200,000/-. A dare devil act this was considering the fact that nobody can really predict the outcome of a general election. Obviously he would benefit if the market rallied, but for the market to rally there were many factors at play. Along with him, we too were very anxious to figure out what would happen. Finally the results were declared and we all knew he would make money on 18^{th} May – but none of us really knew to what extent he would stand to benefit.

18^{th} May 2009, a day that I cannot forget – markets opened at 9:55 AM (that was the market opening time back then), it was a big bang open for market, Nifty immediately hit an upper circuit and the markets froze. Within a matter of few minutes Nifty rallied close to 20% to close the day at 4321! The exchanges decided to close the market at 10:01 AM as it was overheated…and thus it was the shortest working day of my life.

Here is the chart that highlights that day’s market move –

In the whole process our dear associate had made a sweet fortune. At 10:01 AM on that glorious Monday morning, his option were valued at Rs.28,00,000/- a whopping 1300% gain all achieved overnight! This is the kind of trades that almost all traders including me aspire to experience.

Anyway, let me ask you a few questions regarding this story and that will also bring us back to the main topic –

- Why do you think our associate choose to buy OTM options and not really ATM or ITM options?
- What would have happened if he had bought an ITM or ATM option instead?

Well the answers to these questions lies in this graph –

This graph talks about the ‘Delta Acceleration’ – there are 4 delta stages mentioned in the graph, let us look into each one of them.

Before we move ahead with the following discussion some points for you here –

- I would advise you to pay a lot of attention to the following discussion, these are some of the really important points to know and remember
- Do recollect and revise the delta table (option type, approximate delta value etc) from the previous chapter
- Please do bear in mind the delta and premium numbers used here is an intelligent assumption for the sake of this illustration –

**Predevelopment** – This is the stage when the option is OTM or deep OTM. The delta here is close to 0. The delta will remain close to 0 even when the option moves from deep OTM to OTM. For example when spot is 8400, 8700 Call Option is Deep OTM, which is likely to have a delta of 0.05. Now even if the spot moves from 8400 to let us say 8500, the delta of 8700 Call option will not move much as 8700 CE is still an OTM option. The delta will still be a small non – zero number.

So if the premium for 8700 CE when spot is at 8400 is Rs.12, then when Nifty moves to 8500 (100 point move) the premium is likely to move by 100 * 0.05 = 5 points.

Hence the new premium will be Rs.12 + 5 = Rs.17/-. However the 8700 CE is now considered slightly OTM and not really deep OTM.

Most important to note – the change in premium value in absolute terms maybe small (Rs.5/-) but in percentage terms the Rs.12/- option has changed by 41.6% to Rs.17/-

**Conclusion** – Deep OTM options tends to put on an impressive percentage however for this to happen the spot has to move by a large value.

**Recommendation** – avoid buying **deep OTM** options because the deltas are really small and the underlying has to move massively for the option to work in your favor. There is more bang for the buck elsewhere. However for the very same reason selling deep OTM makes sense, but we will evaluate when to sell these options when we take up the Greek ‘Theta’.

**Take off & Acceleration**** – **This is the stage when the option transitions from OTM to ATM. This is where the maximum bang for the buck lies, and therefore the risk.

Consider this – Nifty spot @ 8400, Strike is 8500 CE, option is slightly OTM, delta is 0.25, Premium is Rs.20/-.

Spot moves from 8400 to 8500 (100 point), to figure out what happens on the premium side, let us do some math –

Change in underlying = 100

Delta for 8500 CE = 0.25

Premium change = 100 * 0.25 = 25

New premium = Rs.20 + 25 = Rs.45/-

Percentage change = 125%

Do you see that? For the same 100 point move slightly OTM options behaves very differently.

**Conclusion** – The slightly OTM option which usually has a delta value of say 0.2 or 0.3 is more sensitive to changes in the underlying. For any meaningful change in the underlying the percentage change in the slightly OTM options is very impressive. In fact this is exactly how option traders double or triple their money i.e. by buying slightly OTM options when they expect big moves in the underlying. But I would like to remind you that this is just one face of the cube, there are other faces we still need to explore.

**Recommendation** – Buying slightly OTM option is more expensive than buying deep OTM options, but if you get your act right you stand to make a killing. Whenever you buy options, consider buying slightly OTM options (of course assuming there is plenty of time to expiry, we will talk about this later).

Let us take this forward and see how the ATM option would react for the same 100 point move.

Spot = 8400

Strike = 8400 (ATM)

Premium = Rs.60/-

Change in underlying = 100

Delta for 8400 CE = 0.5

Premium change = 100 * 0.5 = 50

New premium = Rs.60 + 50 = Rs.110/-

Percentage change = 83%

**Conclusion – **ATM options are more sensitive to changes in the spot when compared to OTM options. Now because the ATM’s delta is high the underlying need not really move by a large value. Even if the underlying moves by a small value the option premium changes. However buying ATM options are more expensive when compared to OTM options. ** **

**Recommendation – **Buy ATM options when you want to play safe. The ATM option will move even if the underlying does not move by a large value. Also as a corollary, do not attempt to sell an ATM option unless you are very sure about what you are doing.

**Stabilization**** – **When the option transitions from ATM to ITM and Deep ITM the delta starts to stabilize at 1. As we can see from the graph, the delta starts to flatten out when hits the value of 1. This means the option can be ITM or deep ITM but the delta gets fixed to 1 and would not change in value.

Let us see how this works –

Nifty Spot = 8400

Option 1 = 8300 CE Strike, ITM option, Delta of 0.8, and Premium is Rs.105

Option 2 = 8200 CE Strike, Deep ITM Option, Delta of 1.0, and Premium is Rs.210

Change in underlying = 100 points, hence Nifty moves to 8500.

Given this let us see how the two options behave –

Change in premium for Option 1 = 100 * 0.8 = **80**

New Premium for Option 1 = Rs.105 + 80 = Rs.185/-

Percentage Change = 80/105 = **76.19%**

Change in premium for Option 2 = 100 * 1 = **100**

New Premium for Option 2 = Rs.210 + 100 = Rs.310/-

Percentage Change = 100/210 = **47.6%**

**Conclusion – **In terms of the absolute change in the number of points, the deep ITM option scores over the slightly ITM option. However in terms of percentage change it is the other way round. Clearly ITM options are more sensitive to the changes in the underlying but certainly most expensive.

Most importantly notice the change in the deep ITM option (delta 1) for a change of 100 points in the underlying there is a change of 100 points in the option premium. **This means to say when you buy a deep ITM option it is as good as buying the underlying itself.** This is because whatever is the change in the underlying, the deep ITM option will experience the same change.

**Recommendation – **Buy the ITM options when you want to play very safe. When I say safe, I’m contrasting the deep ITM option with deep OTM option. The ITM options have a high delta, which means they are most sensitive to changes in the underlying.

Deep ITM option moves in line with the underlying, this means you can substitute a deep ITM option to a futures contract!

Think about this –

Nifty Spot @ 8400

Nifty Futures = 8409

Strike = 8000 (deep ITM)

Premium = 450

Delta = 1.0

Change in spot = 30 points

New Spot value = 8430

Change in Futures = 8409 + 30 = 8439 à Reflects the entire 30 point change

Change Option Premium = 1*30 = 30

New Option Premium = 30 + 450 = 480 à Reflects the entire 30 point change

So the point is, both futures and Deep ITM options react very similar to the changes in the underlying. Hence you are better off buying a Deep ITM option and therefore lessen your margin burden. However if you opt to do this, you need to constantly make sure that the Deep ITM option continues to remain Deep ITM (in other words make sure the delta is always 1), plus do keep an eye on the liquidity of the contract.

I would suspect that at this stage the information contained in this chapter could be an overdose, especially if you are exploring the Greeks for the first time. I would suggest you take your time to learn this one bit at a time.

There are few more angles we need to explore with respect to the delta, but will do that in the next chapter. However before we conclude this chapter let us summarize the discussion with the help of a table.

This table will help us understand how different options behave differently given a certain change in the underlying.

I’ve considered Bajaj Auto as the underlying. The price is 2210 and the expectation is a 30 point change in the underlying (which means we are expecting Bajaj Auto to hit 2240). We will also assume there is plenty of time to expiry; hence time is not really a concern.

Moneyness | Strike | Delta | Old Premium | Change in Premium | New Premium | % Change |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Deep OTM | 2400 | 0.05 | Rs.3/- | 30* 0.05 = 1.5 | 3+1.5 = 4.5 | 50% |

Slightly OTM | 2275 | 0.3 | Rs.7/- | 30*0.3 = 9 | 7 +9 = 16 | 129% |

ATM | 2210 | 0.5 | Rs.12/- | 30*0.5 = 15 | 12+15 = 27 | 125% |

Slightly ITM | 2200 | 0.7 | Rs.22/- | 30*0.7 = 21 | 22+21 = 43 | 95.45% |

Deep ITM | 2150 | 1 | Rs.75/- | 30*1 = 30 | 75 + 30 =105 | 40% |

As you can see each option behaves differently for the same move in the underlying.

Before I wrap this chapter – I narrated a story to you earlier in this chapter following which I posted few questions. Perhaps you can now revisit the questions and you will hopefully know the answers .

### Key takeaways from this chapter

- Model Thinking helps in developing a scientifically streamlined approach to trading
- The Delta changes as and when the spot value changes
- As the option transitions from OTM to ATM to ITM, so does the delta
- Delta hits a value of 0.5 for ATM options
- Delta predevelopment is when the option transitions from Deep OTM to OTM
- Delta Take off and acceleration is when the option transitions from OTM to ATM
- Delta stabilization is when the option transitions from ATM to ITM to Deep ITM
- Buying options in the take off stage tends to give high % return
- Buying Deep ITM option is as good as buying the underlying.

Option Greeks used to look like Greek and Latin for me. 😀

Thanks for helping me with this stuff sir..

Super! Please stay tuned, lots more to come along 🙂

Waiting for the future articles. 🙂

This week for sure 🙂

Hi kartik

Thanks for new chapter. Its contents are very clear and understandable. The way you are managing and teaching contents is very good and appreciable.

Q- I am an intra day trader and I use my full margin. Then in which I have highest profit potential – futures or option(if option then it should be deep ITM, ITM, ATM , OTM, deep OTM) ????

Always best to stick to ATM or slightly OTM options for Intraday.

Hi kartik

Clearly we have margin available on futures but when I check this for option it results N/A. Is margin is not available on option premiums. Please clear my confusion as the profit is heavily dependent on number of shares I can buy. I will make my check at https://zerodha.com/margin-calculator/SPAN/

Margins on options intrday is there – check out the BO/CO order types.

Hi karthik,

I thought Margins were only available for Option writing.

“Option buying is enabled for NIFTY and BANKNIFTY only” – So, Option buying Margin is only limited to Option Indices?

Thank You

Yes, for indices if you place a BO or a CO order then you do get margin benefit while buying options.

Thank You!

Hi kartik

If I write nifty CE at spot price 8250 at strike price of 8270 and premium of 117 with delta of 0.3. If nifty goes to 8200 at 12 :30 pm. If I square off my position at current price. Then my profit would be 15rs. Am I right ??please clarify

nifty goes from 8250 to 8200 and delta is 0.3 so premium would change by 0.3*50=15 points per contract . so ur profit per lot is 15*25=375 rs .

Thanks for this information

Thanks Karan for pitching in 🙂

since price has gone down so i think it will be loss of 375rs. am i right?

Please address Rishabh’s query – March 13, 2017

The expected decline in number of points is 0.3*50 = 15….so your new premium is 117 – 15 = 102. In other words, you make 15 * number of lots. However, do note – this is an intraday transaction, there would be other factors (greeks) at play.

Hi Karthik,

You are doing a great job…. This chapter opened another eye on option Greek. Thanks for the chapter… One more request…. Please enable consolidated PDF format Book for fundamental analysis and future trading chapters.

Glad to know you are liking Varsity 🙂 There is lot more to come, please stay tuned 🙂

We are working on the PDFs…we will make the same available as soon as possible. Thanks.

sir,tellhow can we plot historical chart in PI if we take timeframe of day the screen shows 3 months again for somemore we hav to drag&draw how can this be correct

Please do email [email protected] for this, he will be able to help you with the same.

Thanks a for the Information. Sure oneday we can all be very good and strategic option Traders. 🙂

Thats the idea! To help traders develop trading ideas based on science and not really blind guesses 🙂

Hi kartik

Very very thanks for clearing my doubts.

Since market pre-opening session is 9:00-9:08. If I want to place orders in this session then at what price I can place order. Is it previous day closing price?????please clarify

Pre market is only for spot and not really F&O.

Hi Karthik! When the futures of an index is trading lesser than the index itself, does it signify something? Today, Bank Nifty was trading higher while its near-month futures was trading about 20 points lower than the index. Does it mean that the index will eventually fall to the futures price or vice versa?

Situations like this when he futures trades below spot is called ‘Discount’. Otherwise its called ‘Premium’. Futures trading in Premium is usually the norm. Anyway, discount or premium is a function of demand and supply. Either the spot will do the catch up or the futures gains..really tough to take a call on it.

Equity derivative – futures and options (NFO) – ( INDEX and underlying stock)

Commodity derivative – futures only (MCX) – ( underlying commodity only)

Currency derivative – futures and options (CDS) – USD-INR – ( INDEX only)

Interest rate – futures only – ( ??? )

Am I right?? What are trading days and timings of all this derivatives???

On what ,price of interest rate futures depend????

You need to check the individual product description provided on the exchange website for this.

Thank you,so clearly defined,cannot be done better, a very good step by zerodha towards positive momentum for clients,now to incorporate

these adjustments new software to be incorporated on platform like available on some other platforms so as clients can benefit from that knowledge ,apply, and profit in turn overall development thank you once again

Most welcome! We do have plans of having our own options calculator etc…but I’m afraid it may take some time.

Dear Karthik,

Is option greek analysis possible in Pi?

Will you be covering Implied volatilty also in this module?

Implied Volatility is a core topic and we will cover it in detail 🙂

Option calculator is not available on Pi.

Thanks Karthik for your reply.

I am newbie to the trading world. I don’t know whether i am talking sense or not. Please correct me if i am wrong about options Greeks. I think for option trading, it is required to analyze the delta values of puts and calls.

so I am not concerned about the option calculator. It is the delta values.

If it is not a part of Pi software, is there any alternative by which i can see the delta values for the options.

Deepu – the plan is to have an options calculator on our website, this will take sometime but will certainly put it up.

Great documentation. 🙂 Keep up the great work.

I am curious to know if there is a module in varsity, to find out the market direction.

If yes, what is the starting place to read?

If no, is it planned for the future modules? Option strategies maybe.

I ask this because many a times we are caught in the wrong side of the trade.

At least a pointer to the right market direction can do wonders.

Whether in OTM,ATM,ITM will only determine the loss %, but not make a profit.

Thanks, I’m glad you liked Varsity.

The modules on FA and TA helps you do just that i.e help you find a directional view on markets.

Also, I would suggest you look at this – http://zerodha.com/varsity/chapter/getting-started/

Hi kartik,

Suppose I have 50000 rs in my trading account. By checking at zerodha margin calculator under bo&co, I can buy 350 nifty JUN futures . Also, with same amount I can buy nifty 8020 CE at premium of 100 and delta of 0.4. If nifty moves 60 points in my favour, then by calculation we get;

In futures, a profit of rs 21000 (350*60) – 14lots

In options, a profit of rs 16800 (700*60*0.4)- 28lots

( I have ignored the effect of other Greeks like gamma, theta, Vega and Rio)

Then I have conclusion is on the same movement in spot, futures give more return on intra day but when I want to carry position overnight or multiple days, option give more returns as in options , premiums give power to buy more shares than futures

Am I correct???am I missing something????

BO & CO are pure intraday products so you cannot use this margin for overnigh positions. So you will have to use NRML margins for overnight futures positions.

Options should not used as a surrogate for Futures. Remember Futures is affected only by the direction of the market, whereas options has effect of other Greeks. In fact in the next chapter I discussed this point.

Just to answer your question – You can get more exposure in options in terms of number of units..simply because the premiums.

Very thanks for clearing my confusion. Very excited for next chapter. Please upload it as soon as possible.

I get excited whenever new chapter is added 🙂

The next chapter Delta Part 3 should be out sometime today or t’row.

Hi Karthik,

yet again you have made a great chapter. I feel very comfortable in learning the jorgans.. You have made such complex ideas into a simple step by step understandable chapters. Thanks a lot. Very useful for a beginner like me. I like your examples very much.

I request you to make a chapter or a module altogether where you can share some real life examples/experiences/stories you have heard that happened in the market(like the OTM trade by your friend), so that we people can know what people have done with the available

resources. Thanks a lot!

Thank you so much for the kind words and suggestions. I will try to include as many anecdotes as possible.

Karthik, at the end of this chapter, the table that describes the moneyness of Bajaj auto has some errors. the strike of 2200 as slightly ITM and 2150 as deep ITM cannot be possible if the spot is at 2210.

Thanks for pointing this, will look into it.

sir can we know the trend and target using options , if yes pls explain , eg seeing put call ratio and open intrest , how to interprate this in determining the trend . thank you

We can use volatility to sort of set targets and stoploss. Will explain the same in the coming chapters.

As mentioned in the previous chapter slightly OTM delta value is around 0.3-0.45. But in the take off example slightly OTM delta value mentioned as 0.2/0.3.kindly clarify. 0.2/0.3 should be Deep OTM?

Its always best to calculate the delta values…the numbers quoted were just a framework. To calculate the delta values you will need an options calculator. I will discuss how to use the options calculator soon.

Happy Teachers day wishes Mr.Karthik Rangappa……!!! You are one of the best !

Welcome 🙂

HI Karthik

I have a doubt over here in the example give by you in this chapter about your friend who made huge money by chosing OTM.

Assume,

Change in underlying = 100

Premium = 20

Delta for OTM CE = 0.3

Delta for ATM CE = 0.5

Delta for ITM CE = 0.7

Premium change OTM CE = 100 * 0.3 = 30

Premium change ATM CE = 100 * 0.5 = 50

Premium change ITM CE = 100 * 0.7 = 70

New premium OTM CE = Rs.20 + 30 = Rs.50/-

New premium ATM CE = Rs.20 + 50 = Rs.70/-

New premium ITM CE = Rs.20 + 70 = Rs.90/-

So if he would have bought at ATM or ITM he could have make more than OTM

becuase change in new premium is higer in ATM and ITM as campared to OTM.

So why didn’t he bought ATM or ITM?

Am i missing any point?

Pleas ellobarate.

Thanks

Your calculations are right, however it does not consider time value premium. Also do remember the initial money required for trading OTM options is lesser hence the % increase turns out to be massive for OTM options.

Dear sir,

The ans for why he choose Otm call… I will place my view points..

Initially the Otm or say deep otm call was cheapest to buy and he was sure for rise in market.. The call which was otm initially and having delta say 0.1 becomes Atm or itm call on rise and delta becomes 0.5 or more… So he got acceleration when the call become itm..

Am I right..??

Possible 🙂

How can we decide the moneyness of an option.Like Slightly or Deep OTM Option?Any quantitative value to decide whether it is Deep OTM or Slightly OTM?

For Example:

Nifty – Spot Price : 8400

Strike : 8499 is a slightly OTM or Deep OTM?

or 8401 to 8499 is called a slightly OTM

Please clarify me like 10% above or below or called as slightly OTM or ITM?(8400-84=8316) slightly ITM or (8400+84=8484) as slightly OTM

I look at it from strikes perspective for example 2 strike just outside ATM is slightly OTM and beyond is deep OTM. Likewise for 2 strikes below ATM is slightly ITM and beyond is Deep ITM.

question with reference to example of “TAKE OFF & ACCELERATION” POINT 10.3

Q :- what happens if THE UNDERLYING FALLS 100 POINTS ?

( considering 0.25 delta , the new premium will be = 22-25 / zero ) will the premium simply loose its value and become zero .

or something else .

kindly explain .

HATS OFF FOR YOUR EFFORTS .

Delta is lower bound to 0 – so no matter what happens, delta cannot go beyond this. Likewise the delta is capped to 100 on the upperside…cannot move beyond that.

Hi, Is there an option to download the full module as pdf…as was the case with other modules

We are working on it…may take some time.

The way you divide the complex pro material into small and easily understandable chunks of knowledge is incredible. Keep up the good work.

Thank you so much 🙂

Please do stay tuned, we have some really good content coming up !

If the content in Option Series module is available as a PDF format just like other modules will be very convenient to the readers. Great work hats of to you!

We will put it up soon!

Hi Karthik, Hats of for such a wonderfull explanation. I have gone through so many Explanation regarding F&O. But you are the Best.

Because you have explained such a complicated information in such a interesting way.

Good part is you related most of the things with Nifty. Lot of Option explanation avaialble over net is based on US market only 🙁

Eagarling waiting for your Option Strateriges….

Glad to know that Datta Raja 🙂

The first strategy should be out early next week!

sir

My question is out of contest,reply if possible.On PI plate form I want indicator ICHIMOKU KYO. pls let me know if I can apply and how.

Thanks

[email protected]

Can you please email [email protected] for this? Thanks.

Great work.all the while I was reading the article ,the concept of keeping a target for option trade depending on my expectations of the underlying stock/index movement by using delta is daunting me.can I also use delta for estimating target price in options depending on support and resistance levels of the stock

Yes, you can keep use the S&R level to place SL. Although please make sure you use the S&L on the spot market.

My doubt is – if we’re looking at USDINR :

Strike Price is 70 and currently assume its trading at 66.

I want to buy a put option.

Premium is 2.9 around.

So when I buy a put option, I’d benefit if the price were to go down correct? It’s already ITM, so how much more would the underlying have to change to make myself a profit?

If at all I make a profit, would it be because the USDINR went down, hence premium went up, hence I squared off at a higher premium than what I bought?

Yes, when you buy a PUT option you will be profitable if the asset price goes below the strike selected. So upon expiry you will be profitable if the stock /currency pair moves below 70… however after adjusting for the premium, your breakeven will be 70-2.9 = 67.1.

Yes, you will make a profit because the price went down and you decided to square off at a higher premium than what you bought.

Adjustment for Premium Breakeven-

1. Buy Call = Strike + Premium (View Bullish)

2. Buy Put = Strike – Premium (View Bearish)

3. Sell Call = Strike – Premium (View Bearish)

4. Sell Put = Strike + Premium (View Bullish)

Is that correct Karthik ? Or I’m missing something ?

The views and break evens are correct!

Dear sir BEP is same for both buyer and seller in any option.At BEP the buyer regained the premium paid whereas the seller had lost the premium received . Pl clarify ..

Yup. At BEP, no one makes or loses money.

Dear sir The formula for Break even point(for both buyer and seller)

1 CALL Strike PLUS premium

2.PUT Strike MINUS premium. This is I. feel the right way of asking .Kindly clarify sir

Yes, also please check this – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVKfIxVw0Og&t=35s

While reading chapter 1 I could figure out that Delta is a continuosly variable value so how are you using a fixed value of say 0.55 in computing, however now I am happy to read it here in part 2 and also happy to know that model thinking is creeping in.

Dear Karthik,

Your DELTA part 2 explanation is even more engaging than part 1 as it dives deep in to the subject.

However I have a few doubts, would be grateful if you can respond!

1.As you have explained predicting the future price of option based on DELTA, how can we arrive at a more approximate price of the option as the DELTA is a variable factor.

2. When the ITM and Deep ITM calls have a DELTA of 0.8 to 1 they will lose value equally if the underlying plunges so where is the question of safety, ultimately it boils down to predicting the direction of the underlying.

1) Well, the prediction is not on the exact future price of the option, but rather the probability of the option expiring ITM. Also, the price of the option is a function of other Greeks such as Gamma, Vega, and Theta.

2) Holding Deep ITM options are as good as holding a futures contract as essentially both of them have a Delta of 1. As you discover more option trading strategies you will realize direction is not important all the time…but volatility matters equally.

Karthik, I want to have an in depth and advanced knowledge on VIX, IV. Please suggest.

Everything you need to know about VIX – https://www1.nseindia.com/products/content/equities/indices/india_vix.htm

Model thinking is a critical concept! We must incorporate that in every aspect of life 🙂

sir,iam planing to operate 20 acc and these will be opened in zerodhawith capital of just 22000 with minimum returns of 5%permonth if ething goes well i tell them increase fund,now the problem i have two computers&3 smart phs,so how can i manage if opportunity comes regarding stategy first thought of trading nifty optins(hedging,cntra,etc)but because of theta it seems risky so now iam planning covered call r in ur way deltahedge ex buy dlf 50sh in cash&buy 1lot niftyotm put like this for all stcks what do u say ofcouse i get maintainence+referals so i need to achieve 12% here&there so pls guide i want to build empire on this&wants to show power of wisdom

Suggest you speak to our sales executive, they would put you on our AP program.

Hi Karthik,

When you say buying deep ITM is same as buying the underlying, say spot remains the same, the futures contract will also remain the same but ITM will decay due to time.

Option Price = Time Value + Intrinsic Value. As time passes, Time Value will decay…but deep ITM options will always have Intrinsic value as much as the spot/underlying.

Seriously, this is the only place in the whole internet where i have finally learned how to trade options. Seriously , this series of article is so good. Thanks a lot for you hard work , patience in making sure that every nitty gritty details gets slowly digested. Keep it up.

Thanks Manish, we are trying our best to put up the best possible content for everyone to read and learn. Comments like this encourage us to be better 🙂

Hey Karthik,

Any compliments for your job will be less than worth.

Can you show the calculation of 1300% gain on 18th May’09

Ah! sorry I dont have the snapshots, you just have to take my word for it 🙂

I can’t take it because I didn’t get it. It would be a great help to me for calculating the return percentage.

I understand, but the event happened in 2009!

On 17th May, the associate put an amount of RS 200,000/- in Nifty option while trading at 3671, and the very next day the Nifty rise to 4321 points where his option was valued at Rs.28,00,000/- a whopping 1300% gain all achieved overnight!

My question is how the “1300% gain” has been calculated ?

Using below method the % of return is not been calculated:

Change – (Today’s price-Previous day’s price)=R

Change% – (R/Previous day’s price)X100= R1

Or you have just done as follows ?

ROI= {(Gain from Investment – Cost of Investment)/Cost of Investment }*100

Either ways is good – this one is intutive – {(Gain from Investment – Cost of Investment)/Cost of Investment }*100

Thanks Karthik for your prompt reply

Welcome!

On the expire day, I have 10 lots of call/put options but there is no buyers what will happen to my lots (assume the perticuler share is on rally.

To elaborate I am having call option of strike 100 (share price was 99 assume i purchased 2/3 weeks back) now the share value is 200, what will happen to my strike 100 lots

Exchange will settle this for you, do need not really worry about this. In fact one of the reason why an exchange exists is to ensure there are no counter party risks.

would there be a high stt on this?

If you let your options expire in the money, then yes a high STT is applicable. Read this – https://zerodha.com/z-connect/queries/stock-and-fo-queries/stt-options-nse-bse-mcx-sx

Your friend made this whopping profit bcoz he knew the result will hv positive effects and the mkt will rally, he bought deep OTM knowing fully well that on every rally the deep Otm will turn into slightly otm and atm, and with premium being a small amount for deep otm .. but again the mkt that day rallied so much that within 10 am it changed to deep itm where the effect is 0.05 to 0. this was the BONUS which he will relive the day for many years.

Had he taken ATM or ITM , he wud still have made money going upto 1 delta , but the high premium and risk if mkt not rally was a dampner..

but knowing that the mkt will move substantially worked in his favour.

Am I right. I have read upto Gamma part 2 and came back to Delta to again understand little things I must have missed or not understood.

Now the abv chapter made sense to me.

Thanks once again. Pls let me know if my thoughts are right..

I guess your thinking bang on the money ! Keep going, it may require several re reads. Good luck!

I think its time for publishing this material as book to MASSES in print format at basic price….its literally AWESOME…

Thank you 🙂

On Political note…UPA 2 got into GOVT without the help of LEFT….thats the main reason market rallied…

Well, true that 🙂

Sir I am bit confused between futures and option….On what basis should I select one over the other….When to go for future trading and when for option trading??????

This depends on many different things including the availability of capital, leverage that you need, time, conviction etc. Over time, experience will teach you which instrument to trade for the given circumstance.

This chapter points out that deep ITM is as good as buying underlying as its delta is 1. AFAIK futures are also having delta as 1. So what is recommended out of these two. Pros and Cons of these two. What will be your suggestion?

Delta is transient – as the prices move the delta can change from 1 to something else. So this means it may not really be equivalent to Futures.

Hi Karthik..I had been reading option chapters since few days..u had said extremely good and helpful..thanks a lot..

Thanks for the kind words Doc!

Hi Karthik,

I had a small query on options call. If I buy a options call for some premium, then can I exit/sell it before the expiry and book profit?

Thanks,

Rishi

Of course you can, no problem with this.

Hello Karthik, first thing first, this effort of yours is highly laudable, the simplistic way you have explained is brilliant, thanks a ton for the same. You have rightly mentioned Delta take off & acceleration when OTM option becomes ATM, assuming I prefer to SELL options and NOT buy options, can I assume the corollary of this is also TRUE. Meaning when the ATM option becomes OTM; let us take an example, Bank Nifty is @ 18500 and I am bullish for 28th Nov’ 16, then either I can BUY 18600/18700 CE [slightly OTM] alternately can I SELL 18500 PE ?? and is it safe to say the reverse acceleration when the price in a PE option when the price moves up from 18500 to 18600 since the ATM PE is now becoming a OTM PE.

Please help clarify!

Thanks once again for your brilliant effort in putting up this modules!!

Thanks for the kind words, Prasanna.

Yes, mathematically speaking, the corollary works equally well. However, writing ATM option can be a bit tricky and can keep you on the edge. Just in case, for whatever reason your point of view does not pan out the way you’ve imagined then the price you pay for the trade will be quite high. For this reason, I’d always prefer writing slightly OTM options. Its a lot more peaceful.

Karthik,

highly appreciate the quick revert, thanks!

Request if you could please suggest a good ‘INTRADAY OPTION STRATEGY’ which is DELTA neutral,

Also, request your feedback on the below strategy for INTRADAY :

if Nifty is @ 8100;

a) Short Strangle: Short 8200CE & Short 8000PE

b) Iron Condor: Long 8400CE & Long 7800PE

To initiate post 10 minutes of market opening in the morning and exit the trade ten minutes before market closure.

Thanks in anticipation!!

Things like short strangle, short straddle works fine, but please make sure you also look at Volatility.

I’d suggest you put these numbers on excel and visualize the payoff, unless you do that you will not gain meaningful insight.

Karthik, Thanks for the response, here are you referring to any specific XL workbook which you can please share. Thanks!

One elementary clarification, please:

Whether we are discussing ‘Futures’ or ‘Options’ when we say ‘UNDERLYING’ it always means SPOT price, since both are derivatives of SPOT, is this right ??

The excel sheet is available at the end of the chapter.

Yes, underlying is spot in both the cases.

Hello Karthik, requesting your suggestion / best practice here please. in anticipation of a sideways / whipsaw market if I am planning to execute a short strangle what is the best tips/suggestions for selecting the strike price for intraday purpose,

like elsewhere I read while executing combination of buying and selling options. the ideal hedge% = [Price of short option / Price of Long option ] *100, ideally the hedge % should be <30% for it to be qualified a good spread, similarly please guide if there are such thumb rules of hedge% for SHORT STRANGLE.

Thanks much in anticipation!!

There is also the dimension of time here. If the expiry is not too far, I’d be comfortable writing strikes near ATM. However, if the expiry is far…I’d stick to strikes far away from ATM. I consider the balance of time and strike a key component for success in short straddles/strangles.

Hie Karthik,

i am new with Stock market , and started study with VARSITY , and its simply awesome thank you and ZERODHA so much.

My questions are –

1) Can we set SL (Stop loss) wit F &. O ?

2) Does SL work until we square off the position ? i mean does it work overnight ? or should we set fresh SL every day ?

3) As we need to pay less Margin with BO n CO , if we buy Call , do we need to pay full Premium amount ? or there will be less Premium with BO and CO ? i never seen BO CO Premium offer on NSE site ?

M sorry if my questions are not making sense.

Thanks 🙂

2)

Hi Nihal,

1) Yes, you can.

2) No, SL works only during the day. You need to place fresh SL order everyday

3) For buying options you need to pay full margins, but when you short you can pay only 40%. Check this for more details – http://zerodha.com/z-connect/tradezerodha/margin-requirements/zerodha-margin-policies

Good luck.

Thank you so much Sir for your reply.

as we can square off our position in future trade for book profit , want to know that can we square off our position in option trading for book profit or we have to wait till expiry ?

If we sell option – in this case option buyer is allowed to square off his position , but is option seller allowed to square off his position for booking Premium amount profit before expiry ?

You can square off your option position anytime you wish. There is no need to wait to expiry. Good luck.

Hi, That was a brilliant explanation.

If i calculate the value of call, for a particular strike price, by using B&S model. And if calculate the the value of call by multiplying the change in underlying with delta (for the same strike) i don’t get the same Call value. why is that so?

Manan, B&S model calculates the premium price incorporating the effect of all the greeks including the delta. So, as you may have realized, when you calculate the value of option using delta, you are essentially taking only delta into consideration.

Sir,

Great Series, but greeks are not available in Pi or Kite. How and where can we find all that live along with underlying and options chain?

You can pull this on Pi. Very soon, we will have something on options.

Sir,

In My Kite system Bo does not work in buying options or in Cash, as trailing stoploss facility is available only in BO.

BO is only for Nifty options…and BO is available for cash.

Hello sir

The graph plot delta vs spot (in red) is probably not correct. We know for PE , IV= strike -spot. Well to qualify as ITM, IV>0. Also for ITM delta varies from -0.55 to -1. Now according to the graph plotted as spot is increasing (from left to right) and crosses over strike for that matter enters into OTM zone the value of delta decreases below -0.5. While we know the value of OTM for PE varies from -0.45 to 0.

I hope you got my point. Please do correct me if i am wrong.

Do not assign values to the X-Axis. Read it this way – start from the ATM point. As the option transitions from ATM to OTM, both call and Put delta’s gain value…and likewise as the option transitions from ATM to OTM, the deltas of both call and put loses its value.

Hi Karthik,

Great job. Just a small doubt, Does buying at ITM means,being Venu expecting spot price to drop and making earnings from that.

Or to frame question bit differently where does venu stands in the option contract graphs? (Is it in ITM ?? )

Thanks.

You buy ITM (deep ITM especially) when you want to play it really safe. When you buy ITM, the probability of the option being worthy upon expiry is quite high.

HI Karthik,

It was really great explanation to understand the picking of strike price based on delta variation. I really don’t know about this, i’m going to finish all chapters for options.

Thanks a lot for helping all…

Thanks

Mallli

Happy learning, Malli 🙂

Dear sir,

I have gone through the options Greeks.. Let me ask some doubts…

Suppose I m taking intra day position in option… With high volatile market… Suppose bank Nifty is at 23800 and at that time I purchased 23900 call and 23700 put… Then the scenario become like this….

1) index moves to 23950:

In this case my 23900 call becomes Atm and rate 23700 put becomes otm so my rate of appreciation in 23900 call is more than Rate of depreciation in 23700 call, as delta is increasing and all other factors does not affect much as its purely intra day call and with enough time to expiry… so I can make a profit?

2) index moves to 23650…

The same scenario repeats but in opposite way…

So pls sir let me know if this works for smaller profits….

1) Yes, you can

2) Yes, you will profit

During intraday, delta matters.

Hi Karthik ,

I read your post , I also go through your tutorial—i would say , it is very informative, it creates confidence and tells lot about the market.

Your explanations are very clear and less complicated.

From your post it is very clear that you are quiet an expert in stock market, and you are also a regular trader (I guess) .

To brief about myself –I have done some courses on F & O and basics on fundamental and technical but still I am not an expert like you.

I find it very difficult to see the directions in the market, I always enter at a wrong point and make a huge loss,but after going through your tutorial, I find confidence building up in me slowly.

I would like to start trading once again, but under your guidance — can you help me.

I already have account with zerodha.

Regards

Deepak

9590599088

Deepak, I’m glad you liked Varsity. Yes, I can certainly help you. However, all my interactions would be in this forum. Please feel free to ask your queries here. If I know the right answer, then I will certainly help you. Good luck and happy learning.

Sir,

Is there any way out to calculate slightly OTM strike price of underlying by spot price so as to get maximum return from call.

Not that I know off.

For Delta vs spot price curve, for put option how can the increase in spot price lead to moving ATM option to ITM option, it should be opposite of that, isn’t it?

Put option value increases as the underlying value decreases but in the graph, it seems opposite.

Read the graph from the ATM point, you will understand this better.

Though I never had an idea what the options Greeks are and when reading option Greek comments in previous chapters, it all seems Hebrew to me !! Later on Module 5: Chapter 4, I opened that link http://premium.thehindubusinessline.com/portfolio/technically/when-options-strike/article7596687.ece, and develop an elementary idea what those Greeks are and how they affect on premium. Now as I progress further, so far understanding Greeks in depth seems quite easier to me. The way you teach us is never an overdose, but the most pleasurable learning experience I ever have. If we have such learning experience from our childhood to academic session, then we don’t need to find an excuse not to attend our classroom everyday, and it would be much easier every one of us to become whatever we want to be in our life.

Thanks for the kind words, Arijit. Words like these motivate us to push ourselves harder to deliver better quality content. Thanks for being a regular reader of Zerodha Varsity!

Hi Sir,

As per calculus delta is instantaneous rate of change i.e. it is the slope of the tangent at a particular point. My concern is if the delta of an option is 0.5 this does not means 10 points moves in underlying security will lead to 5 points change in option premium because delta is changing at every instant. In fact this should not hold for even 1 point change in the underlying although the result is close enough. So to be on the safe side one should not consider constant delta beyond 1 point move.

Correct me if i am wrong sir.

Thanks,

Balvinder Singh

Completely agree with you, Balvinder. Here the assumption is that the change in delta is one step at a time but in reality it’s not, it is continuous change. However, as you’ve pointed out, this is a good approximation.

How to Construct a Model in Zerodha using the Dela , Deep OTM etc . Can you give a step by step example in order to apply and test the model

What sort of model are you talking about, Balaji? What would be its end objective?

Hi Karthik,

Link you mentioned https://zerodha.com/tools/black-scholes/ ,

will DIVIDEND will it be allways zero.where can i find it ?? in zerodha Kite or nse site??

we do not have any tool like Fibonacci i , ema calculator in kite , which can calculate the delta value at every point

The dividend will to the extent of the dividend issued. In case of Nity Index, you can check this – https://www.nseindia.com/products/content/equities/indices/historical_pepb.htm

Hi Karthik,

First of all thank you for enlightening us new traders with such good knowledge. You’re doing a great job.

Now the question,

I haven’t read much about the Option greeks part so I don’t know if my answer is in that module but still was curious to ask….

We all know OTM options have less premium but has less risk too which inturn means you will generate less returns as well, because the delta is below 0.3

Now lets assume that I bought a call option (Deep OTM) of a ABC company and if the market gets a huge boost (as in the recent example of PSU banks) then it means that my OTM will be either reach ATM or ITM which inturn means I will get a huge return.

1) But what about the people who had already bought ITM or Deep ITM in that jumping market. What do you term that ITM which went very very deep ITM because of the boost in the market?

2) Also, if a market goes up and up for the entire month, does it mean an ITM option will give you exponential returns since its delta value is 0.8?

3) Also does the increase in Deep ITM option premium stops at any point even if the market goes up ?

4) And till when does ITM keep increasing….till it expires?

Thank you again for helping us 🙂

1) Well, they too would make a mad return in such a scenario, but in terms of % move, nothing really beats the guy who has bought deep OTMs which transitions to ATM/ITM. Btw, there is only Deep ITM/OTM, no matter how deep it goes 🙂

2) Yes, at one point it will start behaving like a futures instrument – explained later in the module

3) Not really – as long as the underlying moves the option would also move

4) Yes, till expiry.

Hello Karthik,

From what I understood, moneyness is a classification of an option strike whether it is ATM, OTM or ITM.

What IS meant by (given below the delta vs spot price chart)” the moneyness increases as the spot traverses from OTM to ATM to ITM”?

Yes, moneyness of option is about identifying if an option is ATM, OTM, or ITM. The option changes its moneyness based on how the delta moves – this is exactly what the chart is trying to convey.

Thank you. One more query

The delta of option can not be positive for all CALL options and can not be negative for all PUT options. IT depends on what option type it is AND whether you are a buyer or seller. Am I right?

It is -ve for a Put, yes it depends on what position you take. It is -ve when you buy Puts and +ve when you buy puts. Likewise, +ve when you buy calls and -ve when you sell Calls.

How do other option Greeks other than delta interact with each other. And how do we can use them to build a strategy

I’ve explained this in the later chapters with graphs, request you to kindly check those chapters.

Great Mr.Karthick….

Cheers!

hi,

i have just opened my acc with zerodha and im new to options. So i need a few clarifications from you.

As mentioned here and adviced by you , its best to buy a slightly OTM . And that its best to Sell Deep OTM.

Can u Plz clarify why selling ATM is bad. I have seen bank nifty premium go from 100 to 2 in 10 min on 18th Jan 2018 expiry.

Also please advice what will be the possible implications on premium if we sell Slightly ITM call option or a deep ITM call option.

( trade taken ofcourse For their high premium value received)

please do revert on this query. thx.

akshat

It is a bad idea to sell ITM option, and ATM options has the highest risk of transitioning to ITM, hence avoid ATM.