Module 3 Fundamental Analysis

Chapter 15

Equity Research (Part 2)


15.1 – Getting started with the DCF Analysis

We discussed about “The Net Present Value (NPV)” in the previous chapter. NPV plays a very important role in the DCF valuation model. Having understood this concept, we now need to understand a few other topics that are related to DCF valuation model. In fact, we will learn more about these concepts by implementing the DCF model on Amara Raja Batteries Limited (ARBL). With this, we will conclude the 3rd stage of Equity Research i.e ‘The Valuation’.

In the previous chapter in order to evaluate the price of the pizza machine, we looked at the future cash flows from the pizza machine and discounted them back to get the present value. We added all the present value of future cash flows to get the NPV. Towards the end of the previous chapter we also toyed around with the idea –What will happen if the pizza machine is replaced by the company’s stock? Well, in that case we just need an estimate of the future cash flows from the company and we will be in a position to price the company’s stock.

But what cash flow are we talking about? And how do we forecast the future cash flow for a company?


15.1 – The Free Cash Flow (FCF)

The cash flow that we need to consider for the DCF Analysis is called the “Free Cash flow (FCF)” of the company. The free cash flow is basically the excess operating cash that the company generates after accounting for capital expenditures such as buying land, building and equipment. This is the cash that shareholders enjoy after accounting for the capital expenditures. The mark of a healthy business eventually depends on how much free cash it can generate.

Thus, the free cash is the amount of cash the company is left with after it has paid all its expenses including investments.

When the company has free cash flows, it indicates the company is a healthy company.  Hence investors often look out of such companies whose share prices are undervalued but who have high or rising free cash flow, as they believe over time the disparity will disappear as the share price will soon increase.

Thus the Free cash flow helps us know if the company has generated earnings in a year or not. Hence as an investor to assess the company’s true financial health, look at the free cash flow besides the earnings.

FCF for any company can be calculated easily by looking at the cash flow statement. The formula is –

FCF = Cash from Operating Activities – Capital Expenditures

Let us calculate the FCF for the last 3 financial years for ARBL –

Particular 2011 -12 2012 -13 2013 -14
Cash from Operating Activities (after income tax) Rs.296.28 Crs Rs.335.46 Rs.278.7
Capital Expenditures Rs.86.58 Rs.72.47 Rs.330.3
Free Cash Flow (FCF) Rs.209.7 Rs.262.99 (Rs.51.6)

Here is the snapshot of ARBL’s FY14 annual report from where you can calculate the free cash flow –


Please note, the Net cash from operating activities is computed after adjusting for income tax. The net cash from operating activities is highlighted in green, and the capital expenditure is highlighted in red.

You may now have a fair point in your mind  – When the idea is to calculate the future free cash flow, why are we calculating the historical free cash flow? Well, the reason is simple, while working on the DCF model, we need to predict the future free cash flow. The best way to predict the future free cash flow is by estimating the historical average free cash flow and then sequentially growing the free cash flow by a certain rate.. This is a standard practice in the industry.

Now, by how much do we grow the free cash flow is the next big question? Well, the growth rate you would assume should be as conservative as possible. I personally like to estimate the FCF for at least 10 years. I do this by growing the cash flow at a certain rate for the first 5 years, and then I factor in a lower rate for the next five years. If you are getting a little confused here,  I would encourage you to go through the following step by step calculation for a better clarity.

Step 1 – Estimate the average free cash flow

As the first step, I estimate the average cash flow for the last 3 years for ARBL –

= 209.7 + 262.99 + (51.6) / 3

=Rs.140.36  Crs

The reason for taking the average cash flow for the last 3 years is to ensure, we are averaging out extreme cash flows, and also accounting for the cyclical nature of the business. For example in case of ARBL, the latest year cash flow is negative at Rs.51.6 Crs. Clearly this is not a true representation of ARBL’s cash flow, hence for this reason it is always advisable to take the average free cash flow figures.

Step 2 – Identify the growth rate

Select a rate which you think is reasonable. This is the rate at which, the average cash flow will grow going forward.  I usually prefer to grow the FCF in 2 stages. The first stage deals with the first 5 years and the 2nd stage deals with the last 5 years. Specifically with reference to ARBL, I prefer to use 18% for the first 5 years and around 10% for the next five years. If the company under consideration is a mature company, that has grown to a certain size (as in a large cap company), I would prefer to use a growth rate of 15% and 10% respectively. The idea here is to be as conservative as possible.

Step 3 – Estimate the future cash flows

We know the average cash flow for 2013 -14 is Rs.140.26 Crs. At 18% growth, the cash flow for the year 2014 – 2015 is estimated to be –

= 140.36 * (1+18%)

= Rs. 165.62 Crs.

The free cash flow for the year 2015 – 2016 is estimated to be –

165.62 * (1 + 18%)

= Rs. 195.43 Crs.

So on and so forth. Here is a table that gives the detailed calculation…

Estimate of future cash flow –

Sl No Year Growth rate assumed Future Cash flow (INR Crs)
01 2014 – 15 18% 165.62
02 2015 – 16 18% 195.43
03 2016 – 17 18% 230.61
04 2017 – 18 18% 272.12
05 2018 – 19 18% 321.10
06 2019 – 20 10% 353.21
07 2020 – 21 10% 388.53
08 2021 – 22 10% 427.38
09 2022 – 23 10% 470.11
10 2023 – 24 10% 517.12

With this, we now have a fair estimate of the future free cash flow. How reliable are these numbers you may ask. After all, predicting the free cash flow implies we are predicting the sales, expenses, business cycles, and literally every aspect of the business. Well, the estimate of the future cash flow is just that, it is an estimate. The trick here is to be as conservative as possible while assuming the free cash flow growth rate. We have assumed 18% and 10% growth rate for the future, these are fairly conservative growth rate numbers for a well managed and growing company.

15.2 – The Terminal Value

We have tried to predict the future free cash flow for upto 10 years. But what would happen to the company after the 10th year? Would it cease to exist? Well, it would not. A company is expected to be a ‘going concern’ which continues to exist forever. This also means as long as the company exists, there is some amount of free cash being generated. However as companies mature, the rate at which the free cash is generated starts to diminish.

The rate at which the free cash flow grows beyond 10 years (2024 onwards) is called the “Terminal Growth Rate”. Usually the terminal growth rate is considered to be less than 5%. I personally like to set this rate between 3-4%, and never beyond that.

The “Terminal Value” is the sum of all the future free cash flow, beyond the 10th year, also called the terminal year. To calculate the terminal value we just have to take the cash flow of the 10th year and grow it at the terminal growth rate. However, the formula to do this is different as we are calculating the value literally to infinity.

Terminal Value = FCF * (1 + Terminal Growth Rate) / (Discount Rate – Terminal growth rate)

Do note, the FCF used in the terminal value calculation is that of the 10th year. Let us calculate the terminal value for ARBL considering a discount rate of 9% and terminal growth rate of 3.5% :

= 517.12 *(1+ 3.5%) / (9% – 3.5%)

= Rs.9731.25 Crs

15.3 – The Net Present Value (NPV)

We know the future free cash flow for the next 10 years and we also know the terminal value (which is the future free cash flow of ARBL beyond the 10th year and upto infinity). We now need to find out the value of these cash flows in today’s terms. As you may recall, this is the present value calculation. Once we find out the present value, we will add up these present values to estimate the net present value (NPV) of ARBL.

We will assume the discount rate at 9%.

For example in 2015 – 16 (2 years from now) ARBL is expected to receive Rs.195.29 Crs. At 9% discount rate the present value would be –

= 195.29 / (1+9%)^2

= Rs.164.37 Crs

So here is how the present value of the future cash flows stack up –

Sl No Year Growth rate Future Cash flow (INR Crs) Present Value (INR Crs)
1 2014 – 15 18% 165.62 151.94
2 2015 – 16 18% 195.29 164.37
3 2016 – 17 18% 230.45 177.94
4 2017 – 18 18% 271.93 192.72
5 2018 – 19 18% 320.88 208.63
6 2019 – 20 10% 352.96 210.54
7 2020 – 21 10% 388.26 212.48
8 2021 – 22 10% 427.09 214.43
9 2022 – 23 10% 470.11 216.55
10 2023 – 24 10% 517.12 218.54
Net Present Value (NPV) of future free cash flows Rs.1968.14 Crs

Along with this, we also need to calculate the net present value for the terminal value, to calculate this we simply discount the terminal value by discount rate –

= 9731.25 / (1+9%)^10

= Rs.4110.69 Crs

Therefore, the sum of the present values of the cash flows is = NPV of future free cash flows + PV of terminal value

= 1968.14 + 4110.69

= Rs.6078.83 Crs

This means standing today and looking into the future, I expect ARBL to generate a total free cash flow of Rs.6078.83 Crs all of which would belong to the shareholders of ARBL.

15.4 – The Share Price

We are now at the very last step of the DCF analysis. We will now calculate the share price of ARBL based on the future free cash flow of the firm.

We now know the total free cash flow that ARBL is likely to generate. We also know the number of shares outstanding in the markets. Dividing the total free cash flow by the total number of shares would give us the per share price of ARBL.

However before doing that we need to calculate the value of ‘Net Debt’ from the company’s balance sheet. Net debt is the current year total debt minus current year cash & cash balance.

Net Debt = Current Year Total Debt – Cash & Cash Balance

For ARBL this would be (based on FY14 Balance sheet) –

Net Debt  = 75.94 – 294.5

= (Rs.218.6 Crs)

A negative sign indicates that the company has more cash than debt. This naturally has to be added to the total present value of free cash flows.

= Rs.6078.83 Crs – (Rs. 218.6 Crs)

= Rs.6297.43 Crs

Dividing the above number by the total number of shares should give us the share price of the company also called the intrinsic value of the company.

Share Price = Total Present Value of Free Cash flow / Total Number of shares

We know from ARBL’s annual report the total number of outstanding shares is 17.081 Crs. Hence the intrinsic value or the per share value is –

= Rs.6297.43 Crs / 17.081 Crs

~ Rs.368 per share!

This in fact is the final output of the DCF model.

15.5 – Modeling Error & the intrinsic value band

The DCF model though quite scientific is built on a bunch of assumptions. Making assumptions, especially in finance takes on an art form. You get better at it, as you progress through and gain more experience. Hence for all practical purposes, it is advisable for us to assume (yet another assumptionJ ) that we have made a few errors while making the intrinsic value calculation and hence we should accommodate for modeling errors.

A leeway for the modeling error simply allows us to be a flexible with the calculation of the per share value. I personally prefer to add + 10% as an upper band and – 10% as the lower band for what I perceive as the intrinsic value of the stock.

Applying that on our calculation –

Lower intrinsic value = 368 * (1- 10%) = Rs. 331

Upper intrinsic value = Rs.405

Hence, instead of assuming Rs.368 as the fair value of the stock, I would now assume that the stock is fairly valued between 331 and 405. This would be the intrinsic value band.

Now keeping this value in perspective, we check the market value of the stock. Based on its current market price we conclude the following –

  1. If the stock price is below the lower intrinsic value band, then we consider the stock to be undervalued, hence one should look at buying the stock
  2. If the stock price is within the intrinsic value band, then the stock is considered fairly valued. While no fresh buy is advisable, one can continue to hold on to the stock if not for adding more to the existing positions
  3. If the stock price is above the higher intrinsic value band, the stock is considered overvalued. The investor can either book profits at these levels or continue to stay put. But should certainly not buy at these levels.

Keeping these guidelines, we could check for the stock price of Amara Raja Batteries Limited as of today (2nd Dec 2014). Here is a snapshot from the NSE’s website –


The stock is trading at Rs.726.70 per share! Way higher than the upper limit of the intrinsic value band. Clearly buying the stock at these levels implies one is buying at extremely high valuations.

15.6 –Spotting buying opportunities

Long term investment and activities surrounding long term investing is like a slow moving locomotive train. Active trading on the other hand is like the fast bullet train.  When long term value opportunity is created, the opportunity lingers in the market for a while. It does not really disappear in a hurry. For instance, we now know that Amara Raja Batteries Limited is overvalued at current market price as it is trading way higher than the upper limit of the intrinsic value band. But the scene was totally different a year ago. Recall based on FY 2013- 2014, ARBL’s intrinsic value band is between Rs. 331 and Rs.405.

Here is the chart of ARBL –


The blue highlight clearly shows that, the stock was comfortable trading within the band for almost 5 months! You could have bought the stock anytime during the year. After buying, all you had to do was stay put for the returns to roll!

In fact this is the reason why they say – Bear markets create value. The whole of last year (2013) the markets were bearish, creating valuable buying opportunities in quality stocks.

15.7 – Conclusion

Over the last 3 chapters, we have looked at different aspects of equity research. As you may have realized, equity research is simply the process of inspecting the company from three different perspectives (stages).

In stage 1, we looked at the qualitative aspects of the company. At this stage, we figured out who, what, when, how, and why of the company. I consider this as an extremely crucial stage of equity research. If something is not really convincing here, I do not proceed further. Remember markets are an ocean of opportunities, so do not force yourself to commit on to an opportunity that does not give you the right vibe.

I proceed to stage 2 only after I am 100% convinced with my findings in stage 1. Stage 2 is basically the application of the standard checklist, where we evaluate the performance of the company. The checklist that we have discussed is just my version, of what I think is a fairly good checklist. I would encourage you to build your own checklist, but make sure you have a reasonable logic while including each checklist item.

Assuming the company clears both stage 1 and 2 of equity research, I proceed to equity research stage 3. In stage 3, we evaluate the intrinsic value of the stock and compare it with the market value. If the stock is trading cheaper than the intrinsic value, then the stock is considered a good buy. Else it is not.

When all the 3 stages align to your satisfaction, then you certainly would have the conviction to own the stock. Once you buy, stay put, ignore the daily volatility (that is in fact the virtue of capital markets) and let the markets take its own course.

Please note, I have included a DCF Model on ARBL, which I have built on excel. You could download this and use it as a calculator for other companies as well.

Key takeaways from this chapter

  1. The free cash flow (FCF) for the company is calculated by deducting the capital expenditures from the net cash from operating activates
  2. The free cash flow tracks the money left over for the investors
  3. The latest year FCF is used to forecast the future year’s cash flow
  4. The growth rate at which the FCF is grown has to be conservative
  5. Terminal growth rate is the rate at which the company’s cash flow is supposed to grow beyond the terminal year
  6. The terminal value is the value of the cash flow the company generates from the terminal year upto infinity
  7. The future cash flow including the terminal value has to be discounted back to today’s value
  8. The sum of all the discounted cash flows (including the terminal value) is the total net present value of cash flows
  9. From the total net present value of cash flows, the net debt has to be adjusted. Dividing this by the total number of shares gives us the per share value of the company
  10. One needs to accommodate for modeling errors by including a 10% band around the share price
  11. By including a 10% leeway we create a intrinsic value band
  12. Stock trading below the range is considered a good buy, while the stock price above the intrinsic value band is considered expensive
  13. Wealth is created by long term ownership of undervalued stocks
  14. Thus, the DCF analysis helps the investors to identify whether the current share price of the company is justified or not.


  1. Harshad Salvi says:

    Hi, Few Questions…
    1. On what basis should one select the future growth rate of FCF? Has it got to do anything with Profit growth rate(NP or GP)? if not, then
    how should we determine the growth rate?
    2. Why did you select the discount rate of 9%? Is it related to Cost of Capital (or WACC) of the Co.?
    3. The above exercise is based upon FY14 results summary. The results must have been out somewhere in the month of April or so. Then,
    how could one have purchased the stock in FY13-14 only without knowing what the results are going to be? And also, the stock was seen
    trading closer to the upper band of the intrinsic value (in the month of February-March), which doesn’t warrant adding stock to one’s
    kitty. In other words, it appears to have traded at around fair value. Then why would one invest in the said stock once results were out.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      My answers in line –

      1) This is the hard part, there is no clear basis that is prescribed. I personally prefer to be as conservative as possible when it comes to setting the FCF rate. I never exceed 20%. Besides, I prefer the 2 stage DCF process where I have two different FCF rate.

      2) Yes, the discount rate is nothing but the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). 9% is probably a bit low, I should kept it at probably 10 -11%. In fact this is the reason why I have given the excel link, people can feed in their desired rate and play around.

      3) You maybe right on the 3rd point, not sure how I erred here. Let me re-look and if required rewrite.

  2. Harshad Salvi says:

    Would you pls explain what constitutes Large Cap, Mid cap & small cap cos?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I personally use this classification –

      1) Between 50 – 500 Crs of MC – Ultra Micro Cap
      2) Between 500 – 2000 Crs of MC – Micro Cap
      3) Between 2000 – 10K Crs MC – Small Cap
      4) 10K to 25K MC – Mid Cap
      5) Above 25K MC – Large Cap

      Note MC = Market Capitalization.

  3. Keerthan says:

    Karthik, from FCF that is Cash from OA-Capex you have arrived at Cash from Op Activity-Capex-Net Debt that is FCFE right? Why is Interest*(1-t) missing in the equation?(FCFF). Could you explain these concepts? FCF,FCFF and FCFE?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      FCF/FCFF = Free cash flow to the Firm. A firm includes both deb holders and equity holders. FCF conveys to us how much cash the company is generating for both these types of holders. However if we have to find out the cash component specifically for equity holders then we got to look at ‘Free Cash flow to Equity’ or FCFE. FCFE gives us the cash component applicable to the equity holders of the firm. Yes, taking interest*(1-tax rate) makes sense but I guess since the interest component was very low, I must have skipped it. By taking interest*(1-tax rate) we are actually accounting for the tax shield the company enjoys by paying an interest to debt holders.

      • Keerthan says:

        OK. I just came across Zerodha Varsity last weekend and I must say I am very impressed with the material. It is very simple, lucid and clear. I have some suggestions for you. Both TA and FA modules are very good.
        1) In TA you could also look at adding a chapter on Elliot Waves. It is an extremely helpful tool.
        2) In FA you could also add a module on relative valuation methods, (P/E, EV/EBITDA, Market capitalisation/Free cashflow yield, Enterprise value/Free cash flow yield etc). These valuation methods are equally good especially the one’s involving cashflow yields.
        3) You could also be a module on valuation metrics in different sectors for general understanding (Cement, IT, FMCG, Realty etc).
        4) There could be a brief write up on taxation as well( LTCG,STCG etc)
        Even if you so not add any of these, It is still an excellent job so far.

        • Keerthan says:

          3) There could be a module/ write up on valuation metrics in different sectors for general understanding (Cement, IT, FMCG, Realty etc).

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Thanks for you kind words. Zerodha has taken a lot of efforts to build Varsity…it is still in a early stage, it will have a lot more content as we go forward. Will try and include all the topics you have suggested, please stay tuned. Right now the focus is on Futures and Options as there are many request coming in for these modules.

  4. Keerthan says:

    Hi Karthik, I was looking at the attached cash flow statement, Could you tell me whether Purchase of Fixed Assets Including Capital work in progress and Capital advances can be considered as CAPEX for finding out the FCF or should we take out CWIP and Capital advances from the given value?

    • Keerthan says:

      Hi Karthik, another question related to the above image.
      In the attached image above, as you can see there is a significant Finance cost involved. So I take it that we add (1-tax)*Interest to FCF to calculate FCFE. That is FCFE=CFOA-Capex+(1-tax)*Interest+NetDebt.
      I have the following questions – 1) For Interest*(1-tax), I consider only Interest costs out of total finance costs right? The other cost in the total Finance cost here is Foreign exchange loss.
      2) (1-tax), here is the tax rate; Current tax/EBT? or Total tax(Current +Deferred+Taxes of earlier year)/EBT?

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        Yes, you will have to account for the benefit of tax shield that the company enjoys by virtue of paying interest. The formula what you have stated is correct. Forex loss should not be included in this calculation. (1-tax), here the tax referred to is not the tax amount, it refers to the corporate tax rate, which is a % figure. Usually about 34%.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Keerthan – You can include this in FCF calculation.

  5. Keerthan says:

    Hi Karthik, Instead of taking the projected values of FCFF , finding the NPV and then subtracting Net Debt to find FCFE, can’t we calculate FCFE for say 5 years, find the average and then project the future values on this average growth value?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can, if fact that is what you do when you build a financial model. I dint discuss that as I thought it could be a bit heavy. Maybe I’ll introduce a module on Financial Modelling at some point in the future 🙂

  6. pravin kumar solanki says:

    In “= 9724.89 / (1+9%)^10” what mean of symbol of “^”. pls explain because I no read it in normal maths.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The symbol ‘^’ means – raised to the power of. So in the mathematical expression – “9724.89 / (1+9%)^10”, it means the number 9724.89 is divided by (1+9%) which is (1.09) raise to the power of 10.

  7. Keerthan says:

    Hi Karhtik,
    I have a query on DCF calculation. Here goes the question
    1) When a company like for example KNR constructions has subsidiaries and hence consolidated financial statements, then do I use the values from consolidated balance sheets for DCF calculations?
    2) In case of KNR, if I use the consolidated statements I get a negative value for average free cash flow (I took 3 years, then 2 more years making it 5 year average) and hence negative PV’s. However If I take the standalone values which are much better I get a positive value and considering the results of the 2 quarters of FY2015 which have already passed and estimated 3QFY15 values, the stock price comes very near to what it is presently trading at in the spot markets. I would like to have your view on this.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It is always a good practice to look into the consolidated numbers. Imagine this – a person could be earning a great salary on a month on month basis, but if he lives in a joint family with 10 dependents on him, draining away all the money he earns, then obviously his salary pales in comparison to his monthly liabilities. The family is his, and one cannot really separate it from him. Like wise with standalone and consolidate numbers. In fact there are companies which on a standalone basis has horrible numbers but on a consolidated basis the whole scene changes.

  8. Massood says:

    In case of banks and Financial Institutions, mostly CashFlow is negative and excel sheet shows wrong Valuation data.
    Any idea how can we do valuations in case of negative net cash flow ??

  9. kishna04 says:

    How does greece crisis affect the indian share market?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Experts suggest that Greece is not a major trading partner with India…so it should not really affect us much.

  10. Nikhil says:

    Bro for DCF analysis which report is more suitable?
    Standalone or consolidated??

  11. Nikhil says:

    Bro when you was explaning DCF analysis taking example of ARBL
    you calculated Net Debt=Total Debt-Cash and cash Balances

    Here you took total debt= Long term Borrowings

    But it should be Long term Borrowings+Short term Debt

  12. Matrix says:

    Hi Kartik,

    Can you please explain, how to calculated Current Year Total Debt & Cash & Cash Balance.
    Is Current Year Total debt = Current Liability + Non Current Liabilities ?
    and Cash & Cash Balance = Reserves and Surplus ?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Total Debt = Long term debt + short term debt

      Cash & Cash balance = As stated in the Balance sheet, no need to calculate. However you can consider adding ‘Investments’ to Cash & Cash balance provide the investments are all liquid in nature (such as liquid funds, short term debt products etc).

  13. Priyank019 says:

    I think the figures of future cash flow are wrong, there may be calculation mistakes. Please check as I am getting these, please see the attached file

  14. Priyank019 says:

    517.12* (4.5)/(9-3.5). Is not equal to 9000 crores, please rectify the figures, m getting doubt over my calculations

  15. nishu says:

    respected sir, you have derive FCF = Cash from Operating Activites – Capital Expenditures, for the year 2013-14 i.e. Cash from Operating activities (after income tax) Rs.278.70 and Capital Expenditures Rs. 330.30 in P&L statement for the year 2013-14 i could not understand. please calculate Rs. 278.70 and 330.30 how it comes? Thanks a lot.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sure, will check again and get back as soon as I can. Thanks.

    • Suchetha says:

      Hi Nishu,

      The Free cash flow (FCF) represents the total value of the business. It is calculated as follows :
      FCF = Net cash from operating activities – Amount paid to purchase tangible fixed assets
      FCF (2013) = 335.46 – 72.47 = 262.99
      FCF (2014) = 278.75 – 330.36 = (51.66)

      Please click on this link from the ARBL Cash flow statement to understand the computation.

  16. nishu says:

    respected sir,………… if possible please give my answer as early as you can………..please…….thanks

  17. Billa says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I am doing DCF analysis for L&T with the excel sheet provided above and Free Cash Flow average is Negative value for L&T. So the approx. share price is showing wrong values.
    1) Can you explain how to do DCF analysis for companies with Negative Cash flows ?
    2) If DCF analysis can’t be applied for Negative Cash flow means, is there any other method to determine approx. values ? Any specific method names ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Billa -its hard to model companies with -ve cash flow since most of the input variables are ‘rough estimate’. Also the reliability is mainly on the terminal value in case of -ve cashflows…also do remember terminal value is sensitive to discount rate.

      In such situations I usually go by other valuation techniques – P/E, comparables, P/BV etc.

  18. divya agarwal says:

    as said by you sir
    FCF is the base for dcf, but why do I have to forecast my future FCF on an average historical FCF

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Without forecasting how else would you gain visibility on the future cash flow? The idea is to keep it ultra conservative and realistic.

  19. Akshay says:

    Sir how accurate are the intrinsic values that are provided by ?

  20. Suresh.ks says:

    While calculating Net debt should we deduct Cash and cash balance from long term borrowing?
    why we will not consider short term borrowing?

  21. suresh.ks says:

    How do we get information about company’s auditors,bankers whether they good or not?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You will get to know the names in the Annual Report. How good or bad they are is something you will have to figure out by means of research 🙂

  22. rohan says:

    If I would have calculated future value and PV for infosys 15 yrs back and eicher motor 6 yrs back. chances were that it intrinsic value of stock may have come in overvalued range after 1-2 yrs of calculation.

    So I would have exited, but How to know that its not overvalued and still potential growth is left in stock/company?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Such investment decisions go beyond number crunching abilities. You should be able to assess companies management, business model, scale etc. This is where qualitative research comes into play.

  23. mehmood1 says:

    Sir…What is the ”Diluted” number of share ?
    Is that this kind of share count when finding intrinsic value per Share?(in case of infosis)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Diluted generally includes the total shareholding plus the authorized shares for issuance.

      • mehmood1 says:

        That mean they do not counting for calculation of intrinsic value per share?
        Ex….Number of share used in computing earnings per share (Infosis)
        Basic 1148472332 (only this are count)
        Diluted 1148487674

  24. suresh.ks says:

    what are the major global events and regulatory statements impact on Indain stock market? how can get this information on website?

  25. suresh.ks says:

    How to see Indian economic and global events ? any web link?

  26. Ranjan says:

    Please elaborate the term WACC. How to calculate it ? or find it for Terminal Growth Value ?

  27. Sai Sreedhar says:

    Can we infer that the more the difference in CMP to Intrinsic Value, the better stock to BUY, than vice-versa?
    Scrip-A. CMP 100, IV 1000
    Scrip-B. CMP 900, IV 1000

    Can we infer that buying Scrip-A would be a better choice?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If the difference (scrip A) is so much, then you need to dig deeper and figure out why the difference is so much. But generally yes, higher the difference better it is !

  28. paresh_poojari says:


    Can you elaborate on WACC or discount rate that is used in Terminal value calculation. Can we always keep it 9% to 10% or will it vary from company to company?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Weight average cost of capital (WACC) gives us an idea of the rate at which the company is borrowing funds. To put it in a simple way – if you avail a personal loan form the bank at 12%, then WACC in your case is 12%.

      Terminal Value – a company is expected to exist to perpetuity. So if it continues to exist forever, then it is supposed to grow at a certain rate. The average rate at which it will continue to grow is called ‘Terminal Value’.

  29. ybirajdar21 says:

    Hello Karthik,
    What are your criteria for selecting growth rate for first 5 years??Is it vary from company to company??Same question for Discount rate??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, it would vary company to company, sector to sector. This would largely depend on your understanding of the business and the sector. There are no set rules here. However, keeping the numbers conservative is the key.

  30. RD3032 says:

    What is Discount Rate?

  31. Shaun says:

    What does the lower price band and upper price band on NSE site indicate ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Stock price movement on a daily basis can be controlled by exchanges to curb excess volatility. If a stock has a 5% upper and lower price band, then it means it can move up by a maximum of 5% and down by 5% for the given day.

  32. rishi Mishra says:

    can we take 5 years average free cash flow in place of 3 years ?

  33. Akshay says:

    should we use tangible fixed assets only or Purchase of fixed assets, including capital
    work–in–progress and capital advance ? If so , how do we find only the Tangible fixed assets ?
    Thank You .

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The schedule associated to Fixed assets usually gives this information along with the accumulated depreciation as well. Suggest you look into it. Thanks.

  34. Chad says:

    First of all Karthik, I would like to thank you very sincerely and literally from the bottom of my heart for putting the entire module of fundamental analysis together. I have minutely followed till financial ratios (chapter 10) and have skimmed through the rest of the chapters due to prior familiarity with DCF and CAPM. And I can tell how much effort you must have put in to compile all this write-up.
    I also started as an enthusiast, did a finance basics course, learnt a theory about present values, asset pricing and CAPM but still in practice, somehow I used to get stuck till Anual Report analysis (I have not yet done corporate finance course.) Somehow, I was not getting the link of connecting the real financial statements of a company to theoritical financial models.
    I feel this is yet another reason to respect your effort as you have seamlessly tied all the three important aspects of fundamental analysis together.
    1. Reading anual reports and financial statements
    2. Using and moreover deriving financial ratios and taking out meaning of it, and
    3. Fair value calculation.

    Hats off!
    If you wouldn’t mind I have few tweaking suggestions and requests for individual topics in the chapters. I will put individual comments wherever applicable (and as I read again :D). I genuinely feel that will make this material even more well rounded.

    Thanks and Regards,

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Many thanks for the very kind words and the encouragement Chad.

      I know the efforts are worth it when people take time to read this…and more importantly benefit from it. Please do share your feedback and I’ll be happy to work around it.

  35. sammandar khan says:

    Dear Karthik
    The % no. like you took 18%, 9%, 8.5% those things are you took by yourself or by any rules & regulations?
    Thanks a lot

  36. sammandar khan says:

    One another question my is that, I’m going to read FA of a company So first I conclude the intrinsic value or read whole financial statemynts and ratios like first you described all statements and ratios of Amara Raja and in the end of time the intrinsic value is showing not capable to buy the shares right now. Please suggest me I’m beginner. Sorry for my bad English as I already asked you about Hindi modules
    Thanks a lot dear

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Its exactly the same Sammandar. You have to start with the basic financial statements and progress towards identifying the intrinsic value.

      • sammandar khan says:

        Thanks a lot dear first and I still have some doubts before going further as you described about the Amara Raja in your modules. According to my understanding all stuffs were well & good at this point and in the end after evaluating intrinsic value we are not able to invest right now because of overvalued then in this case, Will we wait till undervalued if will wait then how much time because the difference is too much between current stock price(around 700 & intrinsic value (around 350), . Please tell me what is the right decision in this situation.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, usually its a good idea to wait till you get the right opportunity. However, this valuation model is old now, we have lot more data points (in terms of financial data). We need to use this information to check the latest intrinsic value.

  37. vimal says:

    Is there anyway to find the intrinsic value of bank stock. From my view, DCF valuation doesn’t work for banking sector.So pls provide me any source or idea to find the intrinsic value of the bank stocks or any other valuation methodology. Thanks in advance.

  38. John says:

    current year total debt = 75.94 which is also the long term borrowings
    but long term term in non current debt. and current year debt is always short term borrowings.
    can you please explain this.
    thanks in advance

  39. vimal says:

    How to take the intrinsic value when the free cash flow is negative because intrinsic value is also negative or there is another method to calculate the intrinsic value when FCF is negative

  40. vimal says:

    Thanks a lot for your response all the time.My question is while calculating the intrinsic value we take growth rate for 5 or 10 years.So the value we got is that the growing rate of the company we take and its value is after 5 or 10 years i.e. is we are calculating the present value for fcf of after 5 years.So how we conclude the present worth of the company in today’s term in current financial position.Please correct me if I am wrong.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You add up all the PV of FCF along with cash in bank. Divide this over the existing number of shares and you get an idea of its intrinsic value (based on expected cashflow).

  41. Nishigandha says:

    Hi Karthik,
    For me it is getting difficult to calculate Infosys intrinsic value. To calculate Net debt when i check total debt , I did not find any debt as such hence I took value as 0. and then cash & cash balance as 32697 hence net debt comes (32697) Please can you check and confirm. This is from annual report 2016

  42. Prathvi.R says:

    In FCF , only Purchase of tangible fixed assets is considered as capital expenditure. Why are the rest of the expenditures not included ( Purchase of intangible fixed assets,Increase in capital work-in-progress ) ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      What we are essentially looking for is the cash flow generated from operations, essentially current items. Things like fixed asset belongs to non current items.

  43. Prathvi.R says:

    How do you calculate the discount rate ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You have to make in intelligent guess. Alternatively, you can take in WACC (weighted average cost of capital) to estimate this. My advise would be to take a number that makes sense and then build a data table which would reflect the changes in the discount rate versus the share price.

  44. vimal says:

    How do we calculate the working capital change or we simply take the working capital change in cash flow statements. Please provide me the formula for net working capital where I had lot of confusions here. Thanks in advance.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Working Capital change captures the effect of cash on the cash position.

      Anything that tends to increase the cash flow needs to be added and items which tends to decrease the cash position needs to be deducted. I guess the same has been explained earlier in this chapter.

  45. Dhinakaran says:

    Karthik, I am not quite clear on the denominator part of the terminal value formula. I understand that the numerator part is the FCF till infinity.(Discount Rate – Terminal growth rate) – What does this logically mean? Also, If the interest rate reduces, DCF suggests to pay more price for the same stock. Correct? Thank you! P.s: I am soon going to open an account with Zrodha. Thanks for all your help 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sure Dhinakaran, Zerodha will be happy to have you as a client! We look forward to your account 🙂

      The formula is mathematically deduced from a longer expression (to begin with). I suppose to understand the logic, you will have to understand this derivation. Unfortunately, I don’t have an online link, else I’d have pointed you to the same.

  46. Matrix says:

    Hi Kartik,

    What if Cash Flow is negative number, as in for example of REC.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well, in that case its hard to estimate a fair value using the DCF approach.

      • Matrix says:

        I would really appreciate, if you can guide on how to discover intrinsic value of such companies.
        Also, i think similar would be the case for financing companies.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          I should have mentioned this earlier –

          1) If the CF is -ve for 1 or 2 years but +ve for rest, then it is not a problem. DCF is applicable, just follow the regular steps involved

          2) If its -ve all through, I’d suggest you look at relative valuations

  47. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    WACC , from where we would get for a particular company.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You need to calculate this. It is the weighted average of cost of debt and equity. Usually it is around 10-12% for any company.

  48. Rakesh says:

    In topic 15.4, net debt = current year total debt – cash & cash balance. If it’s in brackets, it’s a negative value, right?……. If the net debt which is -218.6crs, is added to the total present value of free cash flow, it must be 6078.83 – 218.6 = 5860.23crs.
    But you have added it giving a value of 6297.43crs……. Can you please explain the calculation, karthik?👨😁

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Net debt = Total debt minus cash and cash equivalent

      In case of ARBL,

      Net Debt = 75.94 – 294.5

      = Minus Rs.218.6 Crs


      6078.83 minus of minus 218.6

      = 6297.43crs 🙂

  49. Vijay karamchandani says:

    Hi there,

    I have estimated the average cash flow of the company , but as per analyzing the growth rate of the 2 Phases {Phase 1 – Explosive growth , Phase 2 – Moderate Growth } , you in the above example we have used a rigid % figures for the 2 Phases ., now i just want to ask or suggest would it be better if we used the industry standards., as in we just get the average historic growth average (of FCF ) of all the peers .? or maybe any other way you can discuss .? And please submit your response as whether my suggest idea is doable ./feasible and how your suggested idea of using a rigid % growth figures for the 2 phases is more superior/inferior to the idea .?

    Looking forward for a satisfying idea !

  50. SANKAR B says:

    Dear karthik,
    Good job. Easy understanding. I am new to FA.
    How one can identify, the transaction of capital expenditures?. I see in annual report, in various titles.
    Pl. explain.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thanks Sankar.

      Usually, an associated note will give you the details. Capex, for instance will be mentioned in the Gross block section, which is on the asset side of the balance sheet.

  51. tanveerstg says:

    Dear Karthik,
    I feel there is an error in table (15.3 – The Net Present Value (NPV)) growth rate you have mentioned 18% and subsequent 10% but entire calculation is done on the base of 9% to get the “Present value”.

    I request you kindly recheck this…. Tanveer.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Tanveer, 9% is the discount rate, which helps us bring back the future cash flow to present rate. The 18% and 10% used earlier is the growth rate of the the future cashflow.

  52. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Total Debt every where you are taking Long Term+Short term, however, at DCF calculation you are taking only long term debt, why so?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      For most of the ratios calculation we take total debt, however for DFC we can consider just the long term debt, especially if the short term debt is negligible.

  53. Pavan says:

    Is this the only method to find the intrinsic value? If any other methods are there, then please share link sir.
    thank u.

  54. James says:

    Respected Sir,
    Thanks a lot for such valuable info & all modules.
    I programmed two DCF calculators in excel that helped me & I hope will be useful to others as well. I would like to share it on this platform.
    Here are links –
    1) 2 Stage DCF Value Calculator (Portable, simple with only takes 3 years data inputs) – / 2muDWyv
    2) 2 Stage DCF Value Calculator with Margin of Safety (extended for multiple years data inputs) – / 2muLuBi
    (input cells are highlighted grey color, rest is calculated automatically)
    Once again thanks to Zerodha team for great efforts !!!

  55. akashbarman says:

    Great Job , karthik Sir . I am really inspired by your write ups .
    Sir , i understood the things in complete except the arriving at the FCF.
    You said that Free cash flow = Cash flow from Operating activities + CAPEX.
    But you added only increase in the tangible fixed assets with CF from operating activities for ARBL’s FY14.
    Why dint you add Purchase of Intangible assets or for that matter the purchase of Capital work in progress ??
    Are they not a capital expenditure?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, we only take the differential of cash. And CAPEX includes long term expenditures. WC is a short term in nature.

  56. akashbarman says:

    Sorry that would be FCF = Operating activities CF – CAPEX
    then why the other two are not subtracted.

  57. pravin says:

    SIR ..Not able to understand discount rate for dcf method ….is discount rate equal to risk free interest rate…??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, it’s not the same as risk free rate. Discount rate is the rate at which you will discount the future cash flow. It can be considered as the opportunity cost.

  58. Nirmal says:

    Hi Sir,
    Was performing FA for IOC, i am getting a total present value 908023 and total number of shares is 243 (both values in crores).
    The intrinsic value is 3741.34 with upper limit 4115.47 & 3367.20, however the share price is hovering around 406 (when am writing this).
    i can see that the intrinsic value has its decimal place shifted to right by 1 position when comparing with actual share price.
    Are these decimal point shifts expected in DCF or Should I consider these stocks to be massively undervalued or is it that my calculations has gone wrong somewhere (has double checked, everything looks fine :))

    Also, i am seeing 2 types of EPS values (basic & diluted) in the annual reports of many companies, which one should be considered for EPS Growth calculation?



    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I’d suggest you take the diluted EPS.

      I’m guessing you would made an inadvertent error while converting lakhs in crores or some division somewhere….leading to the decimal shift.

  59. Jaideep says:

    Sir, if we calculate the valuation of Sintex industries by the same valuation model, it comes out to be a negative value owing to high value of debt and small operating cash flow. Could you please explain in detail.

  60. Ayush says:

    what’s the difference between growth rate and dimnishing rate?
    How to assume the dimnishing rate?

  61. Vignesh Supali says:

    In today’s high speed technology big players or institutions will get intrinsic value (as per model) through alerts and algorithms which may create arbitrage opportunity between IV and CMP and they will be the first to fill that gap and take profit, do retail investors have an edge after doing all the hard work (fundamentally) in today’s trading environment?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Of course, FA is anything but an HFT environment. When a stock is trading at sub IV, then that price stays. For example if the IV of a stock is 100 but its current market price is 85, then the stock wont be in a hurry to jump to 100. It may happen gradually over few trading sessions. You will be in a comfortable position to grab that stock at attractive valuation.

  62. Ravi says:

    Hello Karthik,

    Why intangible assets cost is not considered in calculating FCF?

    Thanks and Regards,


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Ah! I’m guessing its because FCF considers only cash expense towards current and real assets. I’ll have to do some research myself. Thanks for asking this question.

  63. Shravan Vohra says:

    Respected Sir,
    Thanks a lot for educating all of us. I have a confusion. I performed the DCF for Akzo Nobel and the price band came around 2000-2500. Current price is around 1800, that is below the lower band which somewhat signifies that the stock is undervalued. While, the PE ratio of the stock is 35 which means the price is too much according to its earnings. What should we as an investor interpret in such a situation?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Hmm, assuming you’ve done it right, then it suggests that the stock is undervalued. However, PE has nothing to do with this. It could be that the undervalued price itself is trading at a higher multiple.

      • Shravan Vohra says:

        Thank You so much sir for your reply. Just a clarification. According to the DCF the stock seems to be undervalued but according to the PE, the valuations seems expensive as we usually don’t buy stocks above the PE of 30.

  64. umang akash says:

    hi ,

    i was going through intrinsic value calculation method. i have a follow up question
    in today’s scenario should i consider 7 percent as discount rate(since you considered 9% in 2014-15??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No harm is being a little conservative. I’d still stick with 9%.

      • umang akash says:

        is this method universal for all kinds of companies like service companies , news paper, banks etc..
        For them what is actual capital expenditure (considering their fixed assets are very less).
        i calculated intrinsic value for sandesh(a gujrati news bulletin ) and it looks very undervalued ..

  65. rajnish bansal says:

    What growth rate and terminal growth rate should i take into calculation ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Its best if you keep the numbers very conservative. This also depends on the the industry/sector and the growth stage the company is in.

  66. Javid Ishraque says:

    Just wanted to ask. When there are different types of share class like in Tata Motors, which share class’s no of shares outstanding should i take.

  67. Shaj says:

    Hi Karthik,
    Thanks for the excellent chapter.
    I was calculating the share value Coal India using the method described and got a value of around 550.
    As the share is currently selling around 250, will you consider it as a good buying opportunity.
    Please let me know your thoughts

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you have done it right, then probably its massively undervalued. You may want to double check all the variables before buying it. Good luck.

  68. Shaj says:

    I did it using the consolidated statements in coal India annual reports

  69. Rushikesh says:

    As told earlier u have explained everything in great detail, thanx a lot for the same. I only have one doubt, I have downloaded the excel sheet given at the end, in that sheet- u have divided the total share capital with face value so as to find out number of shares. Can u pl explain me why u have done so, till now I was thinking that share capital= total no of shares .M I wrong?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Share capital is the total nominal Rupee value of the outstanding shares ….for example if I have 10 shares worth 1000, then in a crude sense, share capital is 10000 and number of shares is 10.

  70. Amit gupta says:

    Sir calculation of free cash flow made here is done with annual report .But most of the companies for eg Amara Raja didn’t come up with annual report of 2017.
    How can we calculate free cash flow using statement of audited financial results published after quarter on bse.
    If possible then please let me know the formula.
    Thanks a lot for educating us.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I think the AR is available. CF / BS is not published quarterly. Till you get the latest data, you have to depend on the previous year’s numbers.

  71. amit chawla says:

    Please suggest the site from where i can get the Annual report with full bifurcation of listed companies?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      What exactly do you mean by full bifurcation?

      • amit chawla says:

        i am using moneycontrol site .
        I this site they give investing Activity but they do not give the bifurcation of the investing activity like purchase of tangible fixed assets etc
        i.e they do not give full bifurcation of the header
        so for comparing the different data in the P/L statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement which site you refer?

  72. Anubhav Rawat says:

    Hello, Karthik! Thank you for a splendid article on Equity Research. I would appreciate it if you could shed some light on the cost of debt. How should one calculate it in an Indian scenario? What if the company is not paying any interest or is debt free? Is it in any way related to the Government bonds? If so, what should be an ideal spread for it?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Cost of debt really depends on the company and the kind of realtion/reputation it has in the debt market. Ideally for a well managed company, the cost of debt (under current economic scenario) should be around 9-10%.

      • Anubhav Rawat says:

        All right. But how can I estimate that 9-10% on my own? Do I look at the financial statements? Or is there a website/journal which updates the Cost of Debt figures for the firms? I would be glad if you could direct me to any website or written material on this subject.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          You will have the make this assessment yourself. This varies according to to the company you are dealing with…which further depends on the industry it belongs to.

  73. Ashutosh Gupta says:


    Please suggest that how can i download this Fundamental Analysis PDF file, i am unable to download it.


  74. Ravi says:

    Regarding the capital expenditure, what if in the Cash Flow Statement, they are included with intangible assets, capital work in progress and capital advances. How do we calculate purchase of the tangible fixed assets??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You need to look at the note (or schedule) associated with the gross block. This will include the all the details, including the depreciation bit.

  75. Arghya Das says:

    Hii If Free Cash Flow Is A Negative Number Is There Any Way 2 Calculate Share Price?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Nope, not that I know of.

      • Arghya Das says:

        Ok, Sir But If A Company Is Satisfying Most Of The Checklist But Unable 2 Generate Free Cash Flow, Should I Stay Away From Investing In Them? In The Same Context I Want 2 Ask U If A Company Is Great In All Parameter But Last 5 Year Revenue & PAT Growth Is Flat. What Should I Do?

  76. gowtham says:


    Hats off to you for the kind of work you have done! Really Splendid. I have become a everyday follower of Zerodha.
    This excel is really great, can I have similar excel for all the important financial ratios, which can be used for any company?

    That would really great.

    Thanks and Keep doing good work!

  77. Vidur Saini says:

    Hey Karthik,

    Your work is completely outstanding. I’m grateful to you for teaching the way you do.

    I just had one more favor to ask of you. Can you please convert all the Chapters in Module 9 into a PDF as well? It makes it really convenient to read without an internet connection.

    P.S – I’m getting a Zerodha account just because I got to learn so much from the Varsity.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Hey Vidur, thanks so much for the kind words 🙂

      And, thank you so much for choosing us as your broker. I’m sure you will be equally amazed by all our other offerings.

      Chapter 9 PDF will be ready once the module is completed. Right now, its work in progress.

  78. Aviral says:

    I did a DCF valuation analysis for a financial services stock and the valuation is coming out to be 1300 while the stock price is 40. It can be noted that the FCF was only positive this year and negative the past two years. What do you think of such a scenario. Is it a legit valuation?

  79. Mohit Khandelwal says:

    I am getting confused between FCFF and FCFE model. Is this the FCFF model? As you removed the debt part after the discounting?

  80. Jaideep says:

    Hi sir..i am a bit confused here…you say DCF would help in calculating fair value in case the company is generating negative free cash flows…but in this chapter u have used DCF method only, and as per your previous reply, u said its difficult to calculate the IV in case of negative cash there any other method in DCF to calculate IV in case of negative free cash flows…can u please elaborate on this sir..

  81. Jinal says:


    I so grateful to you and Zerodha for the amazing explanation in all chapters, I am learning so much.

    I have a doubt in the calculation of FV of estimated cash flow in the table when the growth rate is 10% for 6th year.
    the formula would be 140.36*(1+10%)^6 , right? I am getting 248.65 rs instead of 353.21. Where have I gone wrong?

    Thank you

  82. Anand says:

    A real gem! I have been going through DCF model in many sites, videos, podcasts, but never through anything explained so well. Kudos!

  83. balu says:

    while trying to find “Cash from Operating Activities (after income tax)”
    In Ashok leyland annual report
    In 2014-15 annual report, it is shown as 49560.90 lakhs as on mar 31 2015, but
    In 2016-17 annual report it is shown as 132,449.57 lakhs as on mar 31 2015.

    why there is a change?
    Which one do I have to consider for calculation ?

  84. Nancy says:

    Where can I get the “intrinsic value band” of a stock?

  85. V Vivek says:

    Hi Kartik,

    You State that there is an excel download available for DCF. I’m unable to find it here.

  86. kesav says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Thumps up to your work.
    But I was unable to convince myself to the terminal value concept in intrinsic value calculation. One may forecast next 10 years FCF with investible due diligence but estimating total FCF post 10 years in calculation of FCF, does this a dependable idea to calculate the terminal value as there will be so many dynamics far from 10 years. As in case Amar raja, the terminal value(which calculated with least certainty for post 10 years FCF) is a major portion in intrinsic value i.e ~60% rather than next 10 years FCF(which were calculated with most reasoning) .

    And secondly can we apply DCF model to all companies the same way.As Newbie growing companies may not have a healthy FCFs, so many promising young companies will have a negative recent avg FCFs.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      In fact, this is exactly the drawback in DCF valuation. It relies heavily on terminal value! Unfortunately, there is no way around it. Yes, you can apply DCF to all companies, except on Banking/Financial services firm.
      Also, if you are not convinced with DCF, you may want to check out relative valuation techniques. I missed including that in this module, but maybe I will one of these days. Good luck.

      • kesav says:

        Dear sir

        As the intrinsic value by DCF seems too far low from it’s market price for the most of the companies, practically can we find good companies which are selling below intrinsic value ( based on DCF). Does we find the situations often? or is it difficult to find such opportunities?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, the situation is quite often in a bear market, but in a bull market such as the one we are in now, the occurrence is not too often, as the prices would have run up quite a bit.

          • kesav says:


            If one is long term investor, What would be the stock picking strategy in bull markets. and when we can say the market is too hot to fresh investments and instead should consider selling.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Irrespective of the market cycles, your stock picking techniques should stem from basic fundamentals and valuations. Given this, valuations do tend to shoot up in a bull market. So you may find fewer opportunities. The market is considered too hot when stock prices can no longer explain the stock valuations.

  87. Gulshan says:

    hello sir , sir i am college student and i already studied about pv & fv but the way teached it i never forget these concepts
    my qustion is
    1.can we use free risk rate (govt bonds rate ) as discount or weighted cost of capital ?
    2. how you calculate growth rate (like 18% , 10%)
    3. sir can i work under you as a intern ? i have winter vocation from jan onwards
    thank you
    # graet treacher @ Karthik sir

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) No – the cost of capital will be much higher than that, upwards of 10%, at least.
      2) This has to come from your research experience, the company you are studying, and the sector the company belongs to
      3) Unfortunately, we do not take interns. But I’m almost always available on this forum. Ping me anytime you need, will be happy to share whatever I know.

  88. Gulshan says:

    sir i got confuse please check below solution

    i try to find out DCF of bpcl of (current year 2016-17),past year 2014-15,2015-16

    rate as (15%for first five year) , (10% next five year), discount rate – 9%,terminate rate – 3.5%

    net operating 18,194.41 10,233.90 7,881.93
    caital expenditure -8,034.94 -9,374.49 -8,982.42
    FCF 10,159.47 859.41 -1,100.49

    avreage fcf 3306.13
    terminate 201534.8768
    pv of terminate 85130.50994

    PCF is 412614.3699

    pv 497744.8798
    debt 62256.56
    total pv 435488.3198
    no share 144
    share price 3024.224443

    lower 2721.801999
    upper 3326.646888

    1. sir above calculation is right or wrong ?
    2. bpcl is trade at 550 so it is undervalued stock ?
    3.please guide if i done wrong


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It would be very difficult to validate this, Gulshan. But on the face of it, the steps looks correct. However, I would not consider 15 & 10% growth rate for a company like BPCL. More like 10-8% would be more realistic I guess. Also, 3.5% for the terminal is a bit of stretch, I’d be inclined to keep it sub 3%.

      • Gulshan says:

        sir how can estimate growth rate of company ? basically steps correct as per your checklist but i not getting about growth rate calculation and terminate rate of stock

        please help me sir

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Growth rate can be assigned based on your expectation of how the company will grow. Typically, for a large well-established company, the growth rate is quite low, sub 10%. For a small to mid-size company, the rate can be higher. Essentially, this number will come from your expectations of well the business is likely to do in the future.

  89. Gulshan says:

    all above calculation in Crore

  90. Manish says:

    Hi Karthik
    what opportunity cost should I take in my calculation of DCF and also at what rate should I discount the terminal value? Is there any fixed Opportunity cost and discount rate?

  91. Sarthak Laddha says:

    How to calculate the intrinsic value in case company is having negative free cash flow and it is raising funds from financing activities and by using the fund from OA & FA, company is investing in fixed assets (IA) ?
    Since company is in initial phases, company is not paying any dividends (which is good that company is utilizing its reserve to earn extra from future, also known as funding from retained earning), hence dividend growth model not applicable.
    Net asset method not applicable, since we dont know the market value of its assets.
    Example of such company – 8K miles.
    The only way i see here to calculate the intrinsic value is by P/E ratio.
    PER = 1/Required return
    Price (Fair) = PER*EPS.
    RR would be the required return for the investor based on growth rate and ROE of last 5 years.
    Is it Correct?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      That would be difficult in case the company has -Ve free cash flow. I’d suggest you do the relative valuation here. I’ve not discussed this on Varsity, maybe I will soon.

  92. Manish says:

    Hi Karthik,

    My DCF analysis is sometimes giving the desired result but sometimes just the unexpected numbers which is not matching to some of fundamentally strong companies. How much should we trust on DCF analysis?

  93. John says:


    I have tried making the Share price
    Lower intrinsic value
    Upper intrinsic value
    Margin of safety
    but a lot of companies share price is coming in negative am i making any mistakes. I will give you the names of companies like Apollo Tyres, Reliance, NTPC, ACC .. etc

    And if the company is purchasing more assets than its cash flow from operating activities, then what does that mean?

    kindly help me.

  94. Manish says:

    Hi Karthik,

    The intrinsic lower and upper value are coming quite low for a company stock. Does it signify that the future of company is not good or in future the stock will trade in that low range only?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If the numbers are right, then yes, the future may not be that great for the company you are evaluating.

      • Manish says:

        Thanks Karthik, this model has been very helpful to understand stocks. Just 15 days back i was ignorant about what are stocks and stock market. When my other colleagues talked about the share market I felt that I am just a kid in front of them. I always tried to abstain from their discussions of stocks because of having no knowledge of it. But the arms and ammunition you have provided through your Varsity is sufficient to fight the battle of stock market. Now just because of you I am able to advise my those colleagues about the selection of right stocks and they are just awestruck “How” !! . Just in 15 days 🙂 Thanks again.

  95. shashi says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Is there a service which provides DCF model in excel. I will like to dnld and tweak them for valuation ranges. Please advise.Thanks.

  96. Manish says:

    One more question-
    While reading Cash Flow statement which figure do we have to take from Cash from Operating Activities. Would that be Net Cash inflow from Operating Activities? and Which figure to pick for Capital Expenditure (would that be Purchase of Property, Plant & Equipment / increase in Capital WIP ?)

  97. Manish says:

    Can Trade Receivables be counted under Cash & Cash Equivalents (Cash & Bank Balance)?

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