3.1 – Before the Trade

In the last chapter, we learnt various concepts related to the futures market. Remember, the motivation for any trader entering into a futures agreement is to benefit financially. The trader needs to have a directional view of the price of the underlying asset. Perhaps it is time we take up a practical example of a futures trade to demonstrate how this is done. Let us move away from the Gold example and look into an example related to the stocks.

Today (15th Dec 2014), Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) management, a leading Indian Software Company, had investors meet, wherein the TCS management announced that they are cautious about the revenue growth for the December Quarter.  The markets do not like such cautious statements, especially from the company’s management. After the statement, the markets reacted to it, and as we can see from the TCS’s spot market quote, the stock went down by over 3.6%. In the snapshot below, the price per share is highlighted in blue. Ignore the red highlight; we will discuss it shortly.


As a trader, I believe that the TCS stock price reaction to the management’s statement is exaggerated. Here is my rational – If you follow TCS or any Indian IT sector company in general, you will know that December is usually a lacklustre month for the Indian IT companies. December is the financial year-end in the US (the biggest market for the Indian IT companies) and the holiday season; hence the business moves quite slowly for such companies. This furlough has a significant impact on the IT sector revenues. This information is already known and factored in by the market. Hence, I believe the stock sinking by 3.6% is unwarranted.  I also feel this could be an opportunity to buy TCS, as I believe the stock price will eventually go up. Hence I would be a buyer in TCS after such an announcement.

Notice, based on my thoughts (which I perceive as rational), I have developed a ‘directional view’ on the asset’s price (TCS). I believe the TCS (underlying asset) stock price will increase in due course of time from my analysis. In other words, I am bullish about TCS at the current market price.

Instead of buying TCS shares in the spot market, I decide to buy the TCS Futures (for reasons I will discuss in the next chapter). Having decided to buy futures, all I need to see is the price at which the TCS Futures is trading. The contract details are readily available on the NSE’s website. In fact, the link to get details for a TCS futures contract is available on the spot market quotes. I have highlighted the same in red in the image above.

Recall, the futures price should always mimic the spot price, meaning if the spot price has gone down, the futures price should also go down. Here is a snapshot from NSE’s website showing the TCS Futures price.


As expected, the futures price has mimicked the spot price, and therefore the TCS Futures is also down by 3.77%. You may have two questions at this point –

  1. TCS in the spot market is down by 3.61%. However, TCS futures is down by 3.77%? Why the difference?
  2. TCS spot price is at Rs.2362.35, but Futures price is at Rs.2374.90? Why the difference?

Both these are valid questions at this point, and the answer to these questions depends upon the “Futures Pricing Formula”, a topic we will deal with at a later point in time. But the most important point to note at this stage is that the futures price has moved in line with the spot price, and both of them are down for the day. Before we proceed any further, let us relook at the futures contract and inspect a few key elements. Allow me to repost the futures contract with a few important features highlighted.


Starting from the top, the box highlighted in red has three important bits of information –

  1. Instrument Type – Remember, the underlying asset is the stock of a company, and we are interested in the asset’s future contract. Hence, the instrument type here is the ‘stock futures.’
  2. Symbol – This highlights the name of the stock, TCS in this case
  3. Expiry Date – This is the date on which the contract ceases to exist. As we can see, the TCS futures contract specifies 24th Dec 2014 as the expiry. You may be interested to know that all derivative contracts in India expire on the last Thursday of the month. We will discuss more what happens on the expiry date at a later point.

We had looked at the blue box a little earlier; it just highlights the future price.

Lastly, the black box highlights two important parameters – the underlying value and the market lot.

  1. Underlying Value – This is the same as the price at which the underlying is trading in the spot market. We know TCS was trading at Rs.2362.35 per share; however, when I took the above snapshot, TCS fell by another few points. Hence the price we see here is Rs.2359.95. per share
  2. Market lot (lot size) – Remember, a futures contract is a standardized contract. The parameters are prefixed. The lot size is the minimum number of shares that we need to buy/sell if we wish to agree. The lot size for the TCS futures is 125, which means a minimum of 125 shares (or a multiple of 125 shares) have to be transacted while trading the TCS futures.

In the previous chapter, Recall discussed the ‘contract value’, which is ‘Lot size’ multiplied by the futures price. We can now calculate the contract value for TCS futures as follows–

Contract Value = Lot size x Price of futures

= 125 x Rs.2374.90

= Rs. 296,862.5

Before we proceed to discuss the TCS futures trade, let us quickly look at another ‘Futures Contract’ to rivet our understanding so far. Here is the snapshot of the futures contract of ‘State Bank of India (SBI)’.


With the help of the above snapshot, you can perhaps answer the following questions –

  1. What is the instrument type?
  2. What is SBI’s futures price?
  3. How does SBI’s future price compare with its spot price?
  4. What is the expiry date of the Futures contract?
  5. What are the lot size and the contract value of SBI futures?

3.2 – The Futures Trade

Going back to the TCS futures trade, the idea is to buy a futures contract as I expect the TCS stock price to go up. The price at which I would buy TCS Futures is Rs.2374.9/- per share. Remember, the minimum number of shares that I need to buy is 125. The minimum number of shares is also colloquially called ‘one lot’.

So how do we buy the ‘Futures Contract’? This is quite simple we can call our broker and ask him to buy 1 lot of TCS futures at Rs.2374.9/- or we can buy it ourselves through the broker’s trading terminal.

I prefer to place trades myself through the trading terminal. If you are new to the trading terminal, I suggest you read through the chapter on the Trading terminal. Once TCS Futures is loaded on my market watch, all I need to do is press F1 and buy the contract.


The moment I press the F1 key (expressing my interest to buy TCS futures) on my trading terminal, a couple of things happen in the background.

  1. Margin Validation – Remember, whenever we enter into a futures agreement, we need to deposit a margin amount (sort of a token advance), which is simply a percentage of the contract value. We will discuss margins shortly. If there is insufficient margin, we cannot agree. So as the first step, the broker’s risk management system/ software checks if I have sufficient money in my trading account (to suffice the margin requirement) to enter into a futures agreement.
  2. The counterparty search – After validating the margins, the system scouts for a relevant counterparty match. The match has to be made between me – the buyer of the TCS futures and the TCS futures seller. Remember, the stock exchange is a ‘Financial supermarket’ where one can find many participants with different views on an asset’s price. The seller of TCS futures obviously thinks TCS futures price will go further down. Like my rationale as to why the TCS stock price will go higher, the seller has his own rationale for his directional view. Hence he wants to be a seller.
  3. The signoff – Once Step 1 and 2 are through, i.e. the margin validation and finding the counterparty, the buyer and the seller digitally sign the futures agreement. This is mainly a symbolic process. By agreeing to buy (or sell) the futures agreement, one gives the other consent to honour the contract specifications.
  4. The margin block – After the signoff is done, the required margin is blocked in our trading account. We cannot use the blocked margin for any other purpose. The money will be blocked as long as we hold the futures contract.

With the completion of these 4 steps, I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract. You may be surprised to know, in the real markets, all the above-mentioned steps happen sequentially in a matter of a few seconds!

Here is a critical question – What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well, it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally agreed with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (the counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share. This futures agreement between me and the counterparty expires on 24th Dec 2014.

3.3 –The 3 possible scenarios post the agreement

After agreeing, 3 possible scenarios can pan out by 24th Dec 2014. We know what these scenarios are (we studied them in chapter 1) – the price of TCS can go up, the price of TCS can come down, or the price of TCS could stay the same. Let us arbitrarily take up a few possible price situations and see the price’s impact on both the parties involved.

Scenario 1 – TCS stock price goes up by 24th Dec.

This is a case where my directional view on TCS shares has come true. Therefore I stand to benefit.

Assume on 24th Dec 2014, the stock price of TCS has gone up from Rs.2374.9/- to Rs.2450/- per share; by the increase in the spot price, the futures price would also increase. This means, as per the agreement, I am entitled to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share, which is a much lower price compared to what is available in the market. My profit will be Rs.75.1/- per share (Rs.2450 – Rs.2374.9). Since the deal is for 125 shares, my overall profit will be Rs.9387.5/- (Rs.75.1/- * 125).

The seller obviously incurs a loss, as he is forced to sell TCS shares at Rs.2374.9 per share instead of selling it in the open market at a much higher price of Rs.2450/- per share. Clearly, the buyer’s gain is the seller loss.

Scenario 2 – TCS stock price goes down by 24th Dec.

This is a case where my directional view on TCS shares has gone wrong. Therefore I would stand to lose.

Assume on 24th Dec 2014, the stock price of TCS goes down from Rs.2374.9/- to Rs.2300/- per share; by this decrease, the futures price will also be around the same level. This means, as per the agreement, I am obligated to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share, which is a much higher price compared to what is available in the market. My loss will be Rs.75./- per share (Rs.2374.9 – Rs.2300). Since the deal is for 125 shares, my overall loss will be Rs.9375/- (Rs.75/- * 125).

I would obviously incur a loss as I’m forced to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share instead of buying it in the open market at a much lower price of Rs.2300/- per share. Clearly, the sellers gain is the buyer’s loss.

Scenario 3 – TCS stock price remains unchanged.

Under such a situation, neither the buyer nor the seller benefit, hence there is no financial impact on either party.

3.3 – Exploiting a trading opportunity

So here is a situation – after buying the TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014 at Rs.2374.9/- the next day, i.e. 16th Dec 2014, TCS price shot up. It is now trading at Rs.2460/-. What do I do? Clearly, with the price increase, I stand to benefit significantly. To be precise, at the time of taking the snapshot, I am sitting at a profit of Rs.85.1/- per share or Rs.10,637.5/- (Rs.85.1/- * 125) as an overall profit.


Suppose I am happy with the money that I have made overnight. Can I close out the agreement? Or rather, at Rs.2460 per share, what if my view changes? What if I no longer feel bullish about TCS at Rs.2460? Do I really need to hold on to the agreement until the contract expiry date, i.e. 24th Dec 2014, by which time if the price goes down, it could lead to a loss?

Well, as I had mentioned in the previous chapter, the futures agreement is tradable. Meaning, at any point after entering into a futures agreement, I can easily get out of the agreement by transferring the agreement to someone else. This means I can close the existing TCS futures position and book a profit of Rs.10,637.5/-. Not bad for a 1-day job, right? J

Closing an existing futures position is called “square off”. By squaring off, I offset an existing open position.  In the case of the TCS example, I initially bought 1 lot of TCS futures, and when I square off, I have to sell 1 lot of TCS futures (so that my initial buy position is offset). The following table summarizes the concept of square off in general –

Serial No Initial Leg View at the time of initial leg Square off leg View at the time of squaring off
01 Buy / Long Expect the price to go higher – Bullish Sell No longer expect the price to go higher, or one wants to get out of the existing position (for whatever reason)
02 Sell/Short Expect the price to go lower – Bearish Buy No longer expect the price to go lower, or one wants to get out of the existing position (for whatever reason)

When I intend to square off a position, I can either call my broker asking him to square off the open position or do it myself on the trading terminal. In the example, we have a buy open position in TCS futures (1 lot). To offset this open position, the square off position would be to “sell 1 lot of TCS futures”. The following things happen when I opt to square off the TCS position –

  1. The broker (via trading terminal) scouts for a counterparty that would be willing to buy the futures position from me. In simpler words, “my existing buy position will simply be transferred to someone else”. That ‘someone else’ by buying the contract from me now bears the TCS price’s risk going up or down. Hence this is referred to as the “Risk Transfer.”
  2. Note, the transfer will happen at the current futures price in the market, i.e. 2460/- per share.
  3. My position is considered to offset (or squared off) after the trade is executed.
  4. Once the trade is executed, the margins that were initially blocked would now be unblocked. I can utilize this cash for other transactions.
  5. The profit or loss made on the transaction will be credited or debited to my trading account the same evening itself.

And with this, the futures trade is now set to be complete.

Note, if at Rs.2460 I develop a view that the price will be much higher; I could continue to hold the stock futures. In fact, I can continue to hold the futures till the contract’s expiry, i.e. 24th Dec 2014. As long as I continue to hold the futures, I continue to hold the risk of TCS price fluctuation. In fact, here is the snapshot of TCS futures taken on 23rd Dec 2014, just 1 day before the expiry of the contract. Had I opted to hold the futures till 23rd Dec, my profits would have been much higher – TCS futures is trading at Rs.2519.25/- per share.


In fact, on 16th Dec 2014, when I decided to book profits at Rs.2460/-, ‘someone else’ bought the TCS futures from me. In other words, I transferred my buy position to someone else, and even that ‘someone else’ (the counterparty) would also have made money on this contract by buying the contract at Rs.2460/- from me and holding it until 23rd Dec 2014. Now here are two simple questions for you –

  1. What would be my Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per share and an overall basis had I held the TCS futures from 15th Dec 2014 (Rs.2374.9) to 23rd Dec 2015 (Rs.2519.25)
  2. On 16th Dec 2014, I squared off my position at Rs.2460/-, obviously by the contract’s square was transferred to a counterparty. Assuming the counterparty held on to the TCS futures position until 23rd Dec 2014, what would be his Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per-share basis and overall?

If you cannot answer the above two questions, you can drop in a query in the comment box below, and I will be happy to explain the answer. But I sincerely hope you get the answers to the questions above yourself 🙂

In the next chapter, we will discuss margins, an essential aspect of futures trading.

Key takeaways from this chapter

  • If you have a directional view on an assets price, you can financially benefit from it by entering into a futures agreement.
  • To transact in a futures contract, one needs to deposit a token advance called the margin.
  • When we transact in a futures contract, we digitally sign the agreement with the counterparty; this obligates us to honour the contract.
  • The futures price and the spot price of an asset are different; this is attributable to the futures pricing formula (we will discuss this topic later)
  • One lot refers to the minimum number of shares that needs to be transacted.
  • Once we enter into a futures agreement, there is no obligation to stick to the agreement until the contract expires.
  • Every futures trade requires a margin amount; the margins are blocked when you enter a futures trade.
  • We can exit the agreement anytime, which means you can exit the agreement within seconds of entering the agreement.
  • When we square off an agreement, we are essentially transferring the risk to someone else.
  • Once we square off the futures position, margins are unblocked.
  • The money that you make or lose in a futures transaction is credited or debited to your trading account the same day.
  • In a futures contract, the buyer’s gain is the seller’s loss and vice versa.



  1. Dipak Patil says:

    Why we should buy future stock instead of equity, pls clarify…..

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It is explained in the next chapter 4, the same will be uploaded next week.

      • Aijaz Ali says:

        I have 1 lot (short/sell) of nifty march futures. Now I want to (buy/long) another 1 lot of nifty march future. If I do this then my (sold/short) one lot will be square off or not? Can I buy/long another 1 lot of nifty march future?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, your short position will be squared off. Instead, buy 2 lots, one lot will be offset with the existing short and the other will be a fresh long position.

          • Aijaz Ali says:

            Thanks for advising me. If I want to roll over nifty march future to next month what is the procedure?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Nothing special. You just have to close the Feb futures and initiate the same position in the March futures. This is called ‘rollover’.

    • Saikumar Kollati says:

      You can use futures as hedging instrument and in futures you will able to buy the stocks by paying margin amount and you need to buy the lot size in futures (lot size varies regarding to the stock price). Probably risk is high in futures compared to equities.

  2. sushil 12 says:

    What would be my Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per share and on an overall basis had I held the TCS futures from 15th Dec 2014 (Rs.2374.9) to 23rd Dec 2015 (Rs.2519.25)

    Ans: Rs.18043.75/- (profit) = 2519.25-2374.9*125

    On 16th Dec 2014 I squared off my position at Rs.2460/-, obviously by virtue of the square off the contract was transferred to a counterparty. Assuming the counterparty held on to the TCS futures position until 23rd Dec 2014, what would be his Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per share basis and on an overall basis ?

    Ans: Rs.7406.25/- (profit) = 2519.25-2460*125

    sir please correct if i’m wrong …. 😛

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Perfect Sir!

      • mahesh says:

        “In a futures contract, the buyer’s gain is the sellers loss and vice versa”
        Then who is at loss here in 1st case and from whom he gets the profit in below scenario?
        sushil 12 says:
        January 10, 2015 at 1:22 pm

        1)What would be my Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per share and on an overall basis had I held the TCS futures from 15th Dec 2014 (Rs.2374.9) to 23rd Dec 2015 (Rs.2519.25)

        Ans: Rs.18043.75/- (profit) = 2519.25-2374.9*125

        2)On 16th Dec 2014 I squared off my position at Rs.2460/-, obviously by virtue of the square off the contract was transferred to a counterparty. Assuming the counterparty held on to the TCS futures position until 23rd Dec 2014, what would be his Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per share basis and on an overall basis ?

        Ans: Rs.7406.25/- (profit) = 2519.25-2460*125

      • Peekay says:

        I think the answer above it wrong. P&L is basis the stock price / underlying value. The P&L calculated by the gentleman is basis the spot prices. Pls correct as it may mislead the readers.

  3. Keerthan says:

    Hi Karthik, I apologize for asking you a question on Options which is presently out of context. But I would appreciate if you could clear this doubt as this doubt has occupied my mind.
    I have a doubt on Options trading. (Selling/writing CE)
    Say the spot price of an XYZ stock is 670.I would like to trade a bull call spread strategy. I am sure the price would go to 720+ and so I buy a 680CE. I also sell a 740CE. Suppose on any day before expiry the spot price has moved from 670 to 730. Now I know that the 680CE is in the money and I am in profit. My questions are-
    a)Could you tell me if the 740CE which I sold is in the money? (If the spot price is 750 I know the 740CE which I sold is out of the money)
    b) If before the expiry the spot price is 730 and I decide to square off, then will I keep the premium for the 740CE which I sold?
    The reason I am asking you this is because I thought if the price moved from 670 to 770 and then back to 720 then the 740CE that I sold would be in the money, but I have doubt in this case, when the price would move from 670 to 730 without moving beyond 740 and back below 740. Thank you!

    • Keerthan says:

      Hi Karthik,
      I got the answer. I had confused myself when I typed in the above message. Now its clear. As long as the Spot price is below the strike price for the Short CE the other party would not exercise the option and I will have the premium the other party paid. Thanks anyway!

  4. Keerthan says:

    Hi Karthik, I still have one small doubt. Can I square off my position (both long and short CE) before expiry? If the answer is Yes, then I assume I will profit the premium paid by the other party for the short CE?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Saw the previous two msg’s as well..yes, you can square off the position anytime you wish and profit from the trade (if it is panning out that way).

  5. Keerthan says:

    Hi Karthik, I have one more question for you.
    Say I go to the NSE webpage and look for the derivative quotes of an XYZ stock. There I find the details for the XYZ futures contract and see that in the order book for the Jan29 future contract there are 2,07,000 buy quantity and 7,93,000 sell quantity. Does this mean that more number of contract holders expect the price to go down?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Not really, it just means for that ‘moment’ there are more sellers. Markets are so dynamic that the situation can turn ard sooner than we can imagine.

      • Jin says:

        Don’t know if I am late, but I have a question.
        Regarding the question asked by Keerthan above, what does it mean there are 207000 buy quantity and 793000 sell quantity. Shouldn’t there be equal number of buy and sell quantity. I mean, from what I understood in this chapter is that every buy order is matched with a sell order.
        On a similar note, when I want to square-off my position, is there some situation like there is no respective buyer/seller, and my transaction is on hold till some such person is found?

  6. sushil 12 says:

    sir. cant wait anymore … please upload all chapters asap… 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I have to sit and write the content sir! I’ve realized writing about futures is way more complex than actually trading it 🙂

      • Ankit says:

        You are doing excellent work. This all modules and chapters very very useful for newbies.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Happy to know you liked it, Ankit. Good luck and happy learning.

          • Milind says:

            Let’s say I buy a futures contract that expires on a certain day, and I am making money because I went long and the spot price has increased. Now for me to make the profit do I need to square off or just wait it out till the markets close on expiry? To book profit?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            You can book profit anytime you wish, Milind. There is no need to wait for the expiry.

  7. sushil 12 says:

    i hope u r not alone writing content .. whole Zerodha team is with you.. .or . recruit me i i’l help you 😛 😀

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      We are a bunch of people working on it Sushil, not just me :). Thanks for offering your help, will keep that in mind !

  8. sushil 12 says:

    i understand complexity of writing content .. i have been appreciating your job since first day. sir .. !!!! now lets conquer the whole subject .. 🙂

  9. Ravi says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Wonderful! Content.

    If you continue to hold the futures till the contract’s expiry i.e. 24th Dec 2014, do you have to explicitly sell them on 24th or are they auto-sold on 24th as it is the expiry date of futures?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Not necessary, the contract will cease to exist upon expiry. Hence it as as good of auto-square off by the exchange. More so, because you are not selling in order to square off, you also save on brokerage cost 🙂 But you will have to pay STT and other applicable charges.

      • Srinivasan says:

        If I want to hold the future stock to next month what should I do. Is it possible to hold my future stock from current month to next month.

        Please reply me.

      • Vipul says:


        Suppose I short Banknifty @ 24260 on29th Aug. Do I need to square off today by closing of Business?
        Can I hold this short position overnight and square off when price is on my favour / huge favour?


  10. Raju Shinde says:

    “M&M 1340CE Long Call buy 1 lot Reco 12.05 CMP 12.05.”
    What does this mean? Please let me know what will be the buy value and margin % ?
    Warm Regards.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It just means you need to buy the 1340 call option @ 12.05. The premium will be 12.05 * the lot size. We will discuss more on this when we take up the module on Options.

  11. Raju Shinde says:

    Please explain.

  12. Raju Shinde says:

    oops, here is the correct image.

  13. bbhalaji says:

    Hi Karthik, Thanks a lot for answering one of my question about how to stay short for a long time in market. The answer was “Furtures contract”. After I went through this chapter I felt how trivial my question was. I now have one more basic question now. This is regarding the TCS example you have quoted to explain. You mentioned that December is not a friendly month for IT stocks and the downtrend in TCS is likely to turn around. So you have opted to go long in this future contract. But for a newbie like me, who is not aware of this December fever of IT stocks”” would look into the stock and do a technical analysis. If I see a bullish candle stick pattern I’ll go long in the contract. But my question is why would some counterpart accept the contract. Since we all have same views on the market, according to my assumption finding a counterpart must be difficult or if it happens it must be someone who accepts this contract without knowing the consequence that I will make the profit and not him. Kindly clarify. Sorry for such a long message.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Not really 🙂 Markets are soo big and vast, there are many people involved and each person has a different opinion. Different opinion is what makes a market. For example think about it, when the new Govt came, it was a no brainier that the market will go up so why dint everyone buy? Likewise at any given point people have different opinions…which is what markets are all about.

  14. Santhosh Kumar says:

    Hi karthik sir
    I bow down to you for such a simple and easy explanation on how futures trade is done. I’m very much new to trading and haven’t got a clue how it’s done and now I can.say I have some clarity on how futures trade is done
    Many have tried to teach me and failed
    Thanks a million sir 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Honored to know this Santosh! We are glad you liked the content here. Please feel free to post your queries and we will reply back as soon as we can. Thanks.

  15. bank nifty mifty stocls future when buy or sell & what can do when lose 2000 or more ex.

  16. Brahmaselvan says:

    what would had happened if i not closed my tcs future contract on 24.12.14. irrespective of buy or sell position & price fluctation. particularly any penalty is there for non closure of the contract on the expiry day.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      On the day of the expiry all derivative contract ceases to exist. This means even if forget to sq off the exchange considers it squared off. Also there is no penalty for doing so.

      • Gajendra says:

        My question is if Auto square off happenes on the expiry day, Who will be the owner of that lot?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          No one, everyone gets settled on the expiry day and all contracts would cease to exist.

  17. Ravi Shankar says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Can you please let me know on how the Cost of Carry (both buy and sell) and implied volatility and annual valatility will be caliculated for a futures contract.

  18. kieron says:

    On expiry if there is no buyer available for my future contract then what happen about my future contract
    And also on expiry chances of buyer is low is this true
    Why any other people buy future contract on expiry if is so short time

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If there is no buyer on expiry day then not to worry as the exchange will make sure you are settled. People buy for various reasons – maybe they could just be doing a shortcover or rollover.

      • Raghavendra says:

        Hi Karthik,

        Can we Rollover a Futures Contract?. If yes, then how can that be done?. What are the charges applied?.
        Can you please provide a more detailed explanation to this?.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Suppose today is the day before expiry and I hold 1 lot of current month’s Futures contract. I decide to close this position and buy the next months position then I have simply ‘rolled over’ my futures position. Rollover is the act of closing this months contract to buy the next months contract…nothing more at all.

          Standard trading charges such as brokerage, STT, Transaction charges etc are applicable here. I would suggest you look at this to understand different trading charges – https://zerodha.com/brokerage-calculator

  19. rampsh445 says:

    Hi Karthik Sir,
    What is the difference between stock future trading and commodity future trading?.. Waiting for Commodities Future Trading Module… but it will take more than 2-3 month i guess.. 🙁

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes commodities will take some time 🙂

      We are working on Option Theory presently, after this Option Strategies, and then work will start on IRF & Commodities. Thanks for your patience, but I hope you understand.

  20. Pearl says:

    Sir, lets assume we entered a future contract from 15 December to 24 December. But we squared off the contract on 16 December. So the person, who buys from us, will he enter the contract from 16th Dec to 24 Dec? And is the whole profit/loss credited into my account the same evening? Or some part of it?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You are right, when you buy on derivative contract you are entitled to hold the contract till expiry. However you can choose to close it earlier. The Profit or Loss is credited to your account the same day.

  21. Pearl says:

    Sir, lets assume I enter into a future contract (of 50 shares, Rs 100 each) with ABC on 15 Dec. The expiry date is 25 Dec. Lets say the margin is 10%. So, Rs 500 will be blocked from my account. Then if i square off the contract to XYZ on 16 Dec, at Rs 200 each, will i be credited the whole profit, i.e. 5000 on 16 Dec only? Or will I be credited Rs 500 only (as per the margin for XYZ)? If yes, when will the rest of the amount be credited in my account?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Both the margins and your P&L will be credited back to your account the same day as you close your trade.

  22. sameer says:

    Sir can you please tell how to hedge a long future position with options. For example I am bullish on ABC stock and so I go long on it by buying 1 lot of future contract, now if because of some sudden bad news the next morning the stock goes in down trend say – 2 or 3 percent or even more.. in this case off course I ll have a stop loss to minimize the loss.. but how can I hedge my position where I can cover up my losses incurred on squaring off at the stop loss rate. Can I buy/ sell a put or call of the same stock if yes then how many lots in options should I play. Sir if possible please explain with example of some stock. Regards

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can hedge the futures position by a deep ITM option. For example if you buy Infosys Futures at 1150, then you can go ahead and buy 950 (ITM) PUT option to hedge your futures position. I would suggest you read about Delta as explained in the Options module to understand the rationale.

      • Sameer says:

        Sir thanks a lot for the reply & your suggestion regarding ”delta for options…” your website has many good things to learn about trading rather than just following blind tips on TV.. In the above example of infosys.. i.e with going long on infosys at 1150.. will it be a good hedging strategy to sell a call at higher levels like selling 1250 call, because in options [ if we are bullish] I have heard & read about buying a lower level call and selling a higher level call, I guess its called bull call spread.. waiting for your reply.. Thanks & Regards..

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          “your website has many good things to learn about trading rather than just following blind tips on TV” – Seriously this made my day! Thank you so much!

          Module 6 will contain many options strategies including the bull call spread. Request you to please stay tuned till then 🙂

  23. Durjoy says:

    a)In the TCS example,the conterparty had to buy shares from you.But from whom would you buy the shares?
    b)Suppose,the price of a stock decreases,a trader will square off his position.With the expiry date nearing,and the price still decreasing,wont it become more difficult to transfer the agreement?Also,will not the buyers of the future prior to the expiry date be of a speculative nature?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      A) I would buy from another counterparty who would think selling TCS (at point) makes sense. Remember in a market place, different people have different opinions on the same asset. This is what really makes a market.

      B) As long as there is ample liquidity (lots of buyers and sellers) it should not be a problem. Yes, I would agree trading near to expiry is speculative.

  24. Evd says:

    What happens if we don’t square off futures contract , I’m assuming it will be automatically squared off on expiry date , so incase if it’s a profit the money will be credited to my trading account ? And what happens if we don’t have anybody to buy the contract on the expiry date?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, if you choose not to square off by expiry then the exchange/broker will do the needful for you and debit/credit your account. There is no question of not finding a buyer/seller for your contract. I would suggest you read the chapter on open interest to get a better clarity.

  25. Sunil Tyagi says:

    I think under Scenario 3 (I.e. TCS stock price remains unchanged) the buyer of future contract would loose a bit. As price of futures would fall a little as expiry nears. On 16 Dec TCS future was trading 12.5 points above TCS spot whereas on expiry day (23 Dec) the difference has reduced to 2.25 points. So loss of about 10 points.

  26. Rohit Sharma says:

    Sir i have a question if I buy 2 lots of xyz company 1 lot with near month expiry and other lot with mid month expiry. After some days can I square off mid month expiry lot first than the other lot

  27. SUNNY SINGH says:

    Why we should buy future stock instead of equity

  28. aehsan4004 says:

    there are several futures listed on both NSE & BSE , and always a price difference exists ……. if i wish to do a inter-exchange arbitrage ….. lets say selling XYZFUT on NSE for 100.50 and buying the same XYZFUT on BSE for 100 .
    1) will PI show 2 seperate positions (NSE-SHORT & BSE-LONG) or my trade will be executed just as i planned ?
    2) can i expect any margin benefit?
    3) what if i do the same thing for MIS spot equity ?

  29. Milan says:

    Hello sir,
    Can Stock price carry away the price of future ?
    Future price is responsible ?
    my question is, after investor’s meeting some bad news coming out for TCS.
    and many people wants to sell in huge qty of shares of TCS . then spot price may down and future also may down.
    but lets assume that nobody wants to sell TCS stock, but someone wants to short TCS future in Huge volume,
    then spot price get affected ? future price also can drive spot price ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Underlying price dictates the derivatives price but for short periods it could be the other way round as well.

      • Milan says:

        please , can you explain with more details ?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Milan, very difficult to explain this in a comment box – I’ve done the same across the first 4 chapters, suggest you go through the same. Thanks.

          • trader says:

            hi….can i consider future contract is just the shadow of spot price…i think for many traders this is unanswered question…why spot and future price should go in same direction even though traders ,traded volumes are different in 2 segments.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Yes, you can. Futures and Spot always move in same direction (although the prices differ).

  30. Arun says:

    Query on Future

    I have a nifty future bought for 45 k as an exmaple(nifty 7628 Jan 2016 series) .I dont have any more cash in Trading my account .
    a)Will my position get squared off if the nifty go beyond a range
    b)If I need to have some amount left in my account to carry the position till expiry ,how much amount i need to have and how its getting calculated


  31. mehmood1 says:

    Sir at 1st Thank you so much for your wonderful explanation
    i have two question
    1.Can i participate future contract (without buying) as a seller? than my position would be short?
    2.after the squaring off if i have profit or loss than, how i received my profit or deduct the loss (that mean what is the affect of my trading account balance)?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, of course you can sell and buy back later. The P&L will be adjusted from your trading account. Profits will be added and loss will be deducted.

  32. Arpan says:

    As in stock, we have “cash price” and “future price” in Nifty and Banknifty.
    Can we trade “Cash” Nifty or Banknifty?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Nope, generally there is no cash equivalent for indices. However you can buy a Nifty ETF (Niftybees)…this is like the cash equivalent.

  33. Arpan says:

    Thanks Karthik

    Actually I am good at guessing Cash levels in Stocks and Indexes but have never tried Futures due to “Premium – Discount” difference in their prices

  34. AC says:

    i sold NMDC fut on 23 feb 2016 at 94.1 and brought on 24 feb 2016 at 86, but 24 feb 2016 is effective date for dividend , dividend of 9.30rs, it showing loss in ledger instead of profit. i don’t know dividend is discount in future, if i buy NMDC fut in 23 feb at 94 and sold on 24 feb at 86 then i got profit 2 rs right sir? please explain these scenarios.
    sorry for my english, tq in advance

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well firstly the profit calculation should show you a profit of Rs.8.9/- (94.1-86) and not Rs.2/-. Anyway, as you pointed out when dividends are paid out, it gets adjusted with the spot price (and therefore the futures price). So your entire notional profit (8.9) was offset with the dividends (9.3) and hence resulted in a minor loss.

      • S S Dahale says:

        I do not agree , with this , in practicality , whether one has taken position in equity features , ( as per example NMDC), whether a dividend is declared or not, as that div. on spot (actual equity ) has is not going to be credited to your lot .i.e. equity features, so it has nothing to have impact of its trading , of features ,
        though its spot price may get corrected creating an impact either positive or vice versa( mostly negative) on features price of that contract, so creating a profit as absolute profit in new terms or loss as absolute loss , if it corrects to much deeper value. [email protected]

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Not sure how you are attributing this, from what I know, dividends are adjusted with Spot price, and therefore with ‘Futures’.

  35. ac says:

    in NMDC profits are showing in contract note and P&L in QUANT but not in ledger then i called zerodha support they said that that is technical error we forward this issue to tech department, sir please tell me how long dividend will discount from future, from announced date to effective date they discount dividend in future ? if i buy, dividend will not discount from future right? please explain sir

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Usually the dividends are adjusted on ex date. I’d suggest you wait for the tech team to revert. Thanks.

      • S S Dahale says:

        Mostly it happens with Infosys and wipro, features of those 2 equitie are hammered , once they become ex.dividend
        so its prudent idea to short infy or wipro features for next month (preferably to current months features) to GAIN good price corrections and PROFITS

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Unless you back test this for positive P&L, it would be hard to justify this claim.

  36. Ajay says:

    Hello Karthik,

    Great series, this! You’ve managed to drive these concepts into the head of an MBA in marketing – which is by no means a mean feat. 😉

    Once I’ve closed a Futures position (i.e. I bought one lot of Crude Oil Mini on Monday and sold one lot on Wednesday, or vice versa), it ends any obligations I might have had towards that position, doesn’t it? Is it a ‘done deal’, in that there remains nothing further to be done or paid?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thanks for the kind words Ajay!

      Absolutely – you buy and sell (long trade) or sell and buy (short trade) then you have completed the trade and its a done deal :). You will have no more obligations, what so ever.

      • Ajay says:

        Thank you!

        I have a couple more questions to ask. One too many, perhaps, but I want to have all my doubts cleared so I can trade confidently. 🙂

        – The question of settlement arises only when I hold the contract till expiry, doesn’t it? What would happen if I were to buy a lot of crude oil Mini through Zerodha and hold on to it till the expiry date?

        – Do I need to take care in order to avoid physical delivery while trading commodities? I believe Zerodha does not allow physical delivery, but a confirmation from your end would be nice. (so I know I won’t wake up one morning to twenty barrels of oil at my doorstep. 😛 )

        I’ll probably be asking more questions at a later date, so thanks in advance! Do publish the commodities module soon – I can’t wait to read it.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          All expiry settlements are cash settled by default, hence no need to worry about physical settlement 🙂

          Will be starting commodities module very soon !

  37. DS6494 says:

    Is it prudent STRATEGY to go either short or long in index features or equity features in next month contract , i.e June 2016, as today 29-04-2016, Friday is the first day on may contact or in July 2016 as far month contract. As one gets ample days either 60 days or 90 days -to get MUCH SOUGHT profit , or one should STICK to current month contact only …. [email protected]

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well when it comes to futures trading, the profitability depends on the directional movement of the stock/index and not really the time remaining to expiry.

  38. DS6494 says:

    How about presenting a fair valid opinion about averaging of futures contract,
    like assume spot price of BAJAJ FINANCE was 6850 on 23 th march 2016, and some one has taken a position ,a SHORT ( – / SELL) at May 2016 contract ( lot size 125)of BAJAJ FINANCE at – 6900 ,( Rs. 50 as premium, assuming it to go downward or – ve price growth )as we all know that, BAJAJ FINANCE may counter – contract , has reached upto 7550 for may 2016. and declined to 6900 also

    so, to make averages, he / she made further positions , further SOLD same may contracts, 4 lots ( 125 each) like at now is having 5 lots for BAJAJ FINANCE May contract( – SELL) 1st one -6850,( 2 nd one -6975, and subsequently BOUGHT / SQUARED i at +6940, making a profit of 125*35 =4375, again sold it subsequent second position / Third position -6990, then -7200, -7350,-7450 , Now he has said ( as margin money exhausted – he felt dumb faced)so his average position ( best of 5)is -6880-6990-7200-7350-7450= 7175, X 5 lots

  39. DS6494 says:

    Now , as we all know BAJAJ FINANCE CORRECTED Now to 6850 in spot ( 28th April2016) he is PROFIT, had it been ( worst scenario 7500 ) then whether strategy of averaging was OK, ….. let me know your PRUDENT views [email protected] 9561397999

  40. S S Dahale says:

    whether averaging of index features like nifty / bank nifty is a GOOD STRATEGY or NOT ? still goes unanswere d, anyone pppppllllleeeeeaaaaaaasssssseeee

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well no one can give a specific answer to this one, in general you should know that averaging on a losing trade is a bad idea as you are throwing good money after a bad trade, and the trade can go worse. However for the exact opposite reason, averaging on a winning trade is a good idea.

  41. Sooraj Jogendra Mishra says:

    Hi Karthik Sir,
    I never traded futures before but now I want to..plz tell me is it right what I am going to explain below:
    in the morning @ 9.20 adani port futures trading at 205. I short 1 lot of futures @205 later @ 10.15 futures was trading @ 200. its lot size is 1600.
    does that means I gained 1600*5= 8000 within an hour??
    can I buy futures of any stock at market price or I have to buy them using limit order??
    does technical analysis work well on stock futures chart or I have to use them on original stock chart??
    kindly explain…

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, what you explained is right, you would make 8K on this trade. Also, it is good to use limit orders while trading stock futures. And TA works best on spot charts.

      • sravan says:

        First thanks for the great work from u(specially)& the zerodha team.
        Sir as u said technical analysis works best on spot charts does the same reflect to nifty,bank nifty,
        Or when it comes to the index future’s we should use future charts for nifty future and bank nifty future.hope I will get the reply.
        Plz explain sir.
        Thanks in advance.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, I personally prefer to work on the spot chart and act on derivatives. However, there are many traders who prefer to work on the futures chart. It really boils down to your conviction.

          • sravan says:

            Sir thanks for the reply.
            Happy new year 2018.
            Looking forward to be with zerodha family as soon as possible?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Happy New Year to you as well!
            I’m sure you will have a great experience with Zerodha 🙂

  42. Arun says:

    1.) How the no. of contracts (10 crore or 50 crore) of a particular underlying such as SBI, Tata Motors is decided in the Futures Segment.
    2.) We know that if 95% of open positions are reached then that contract comes under the ban list. Now my question is whether Nifty Futures Contract can also come under this ban list if this limit is reached?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The no of contracts are decided by the exchanges. Yes, ban is applicable to all instruments. However Nifty futures has so much liquidity that it is quite difficult to reach that status.

  43. Kanchan says:

    I am new to futures trading . Understood a lot from the content posted. Please tell me can we square off a position same day in futures. Talking about above example , can we sell shares of TCS on 15th dec ,if the price rise the same day.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can. In fact both futures and options can be squared off any second after taking the position.

  44. Sajeev says:

    Lets say, person ‘A’ is agreed to buy TCS future contract @ 2374.9 rs from person ‘B’ who is agreed to sell. On the next day ‘A’ transfers the contract to ‘C’ @ 2460 rs. Now ‘C’ is obliqued to buy @2460 rs but not @ 2374.9 rs. Now if ‘C’ and ‘B’ are in agreement, how the difference in prices are adjusted?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The prices are market driven and the transactions are routed through exchanges. So all the adjustments are taken care by the exchange.

  45. Akshay says:

    Sir can I use the same technical analysis I use for equities to predict the direction of movement ?

  46. Rakesh.K says:

    Sir i have a doubt in SQUARE OFF. While squaring off whether i have to sell or transfer my open position (may be short position or long position OR i have to take the opposite position to square off?
    Are they both same or different things? Please explain me sir.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      When you squareoff, you actually transfer your position to someone willing to take that position.

      • Rakesh.K says:

        Thank you for your response sir, but please give me some clarity on this doubt sir.
        If i say the broker to square off my open short position then what is he actually doing. whether he will sell/transfer the short position to some one else OR he will take the opposite position ie, (BUY POSITION) to square off . please clarify it sir this doubt is lingering in my mind.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          He will just initiate an opposite position which technically means he has transferred risk from you to someone else.

  47. Rakesh.K says:

    Thank you very much for clearing the doubt sir.

  48. Harshit says:

    Sir,your explanation regarding futures was wonderful??..But,sir i still have one doubt that when we square off the position by selling the futures contract do we have to pay initial margin again and if yes when will i receive the margin back???

  49. Harshit says:

    Sir i have one more question that is it possible for me to take delivery of stock on expiry date..i.e as given in the example that i buy tcs future contract at 271.9 and take the delivery of the stock on expiry date buy paying the seller the remaining balance amount and hold the stock??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, upon expiry all options will be settled in cash. No physical delivery of stock is allowed.

      • Harshit says:

        Sir as you said that on expiry futures contract are cash settled than how will anyone make money incase of reverse arbitrage as incase of reverse arbitrage you buy stocks from futures market and sell it in spot market and the price difference in future and spot market is your profit,So for selling it in spot you need to lend stock from exchange under Under stock lending scheme of exchange.so sir my question is if i dont get the delivery of stock than how will i return back the stock which i have lend from exchange??

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          In SLBM, you borrow, short, and cover at a later stage. This is again settled in cash. So is futures. I dont see a problem at all. Or maybe I have not understood your question well. Can you kindly elaborate please, thanks.

          • Harshit says:

            Sir what i mean to say if futures are only cash settled than how is arbitrage gain possible because in arbitrage you buy from spot market of which you get the delivey to your account and sell the same in future market because of the price difference.So my my question is if you dont deliver stocks that you have purchased in spot market and settle it through cash settlement then how arbitrage gain possible????Arbitrage is only possible when buy from one market(spot market) and sell it in other market(future market)…so for this to happen settlement through delivering the asset is necessary know rather than doing a cash settlement because you will only able to earn profit by delivering asset what you have purchased in the spot market rather than a cash settlement as price in spot market is low as compared to futures market???and if in futures if contracts are cash settled than what will happen to those stock of which you have taken the delivery to your account so that you can sell it futures because of the price difference between spotmarket and future market??

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Ah! now I get your point. You need to be aware that futures are cash settled and in spot (delivery based) is by default settled in actual movement of shares. Keeping this in view you need to scout for opportunities and execute only those trades which makes sense with this arrangements. An example of this would be – Long in spot + short in futures.

  50. Harshit says:

    Sorry sir i am many question but i just want to clear my doubts.
    My question is What if the price of the future goes up than my purchase price but i dont find any buyer to whom i can sell my stock??

  51. Harshit says:

    Sorry sir i am asking you many question but i just want to clear my doubts.
    My question is What if the price of the future goes up than my purchase price but i dont find any buyer to whom i can sell my stock at profit before expiry date?so basically my question is buyers of the future contract easily available and is thier enough liquidity in the Future market??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Please feel free to ask as many questions as you want, it helps not just you but many others.

      If you intend to hold the futures till expiry then you need not worry about finding a buyer as the exchange will take care. However if you want to sell before the expiry, then it really depends on the liquidity. If you are trading couple of of lots, liquidity is not a problem.

  52. Harshit says:

    Sir is it possible to First buy a july expiry future contract and then squaring off or exiting the future by selling it in august expiring future contract or vice versa??For example if price of july expiring Infosys future contract is Rs 1200 and august expiring infosys future contract is Rs 1228 so it possible first to sell august expiring contract for Rs 1228 and then immediately squaring off or exiting future contarct by buying a july month future contract for Rs1200 ??

  53. Harshit says:

    Sir i wanted to trade in future and option segment,but i am really very worried about whether i will find the counterparty or not to whom i can sell my future contract.Till now i was trading in normal market where i was finding immediate buyers and sellers of the stock.So just wanted to confirm with you that is that same even with futures and option segment???is there liquidity in futures and option segment??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Harshit, you need not worry about counter party risk. Stick to Nifty 50, and top 5 stock futures. 1000’s of crores gets traded everyday, so there is ample liquidity here.

  54. Harshit says:

    Sir thankyou for answering all my queries and i am really very sorry that i am asking you many questions but i just need to clarify my doubts..
    Sir suppose there are three contracts for a stock that is near month ,next month and far month.Suppose i go long buy buying a far month future contract.So my question is when i am squaring off my futures contract can i sell that contract to anyone or i must look for a person who is willing to buy the far month contract only not near or next month…So basically my question is can i sell that far month contract which i have bought even to a person who is willing to buy near or next month contract or i can only sell that future contract to a person who is looking for the far month contract only…

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Harshit – when you want to sell it is the job of the exchange to identify a buyer for you. All you have to do is press ‘F2’ for sell on your trading terminal and press submit. Over the next few seconds the exchange will do the needful. This is assuming there is liquidity in the market. I’d suggest you place a buy sell contract to identify how easy this process really is!

  55. Harshit says:

    Sir,as you said that exchange will do the needful but i should atleast know at which price the exchange is going to sell or square of my position.How to know that???

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Settlement will upon the expiry price if you let your contract expire. Otherwise you can specify the price by opting for a limit price.

  56. abhishek kumar sah says:

    so TA of spot graph is one way of forming the directional view that traders use.. is there any other way that traders use to trade in futures ??

  57. abhishek kumar sah says:

    also from where do i get to know if that particular futures contract has enough liquidity??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      On average if there are about 5-10 contracts being traded every minute then I would consider that as ample liquidity for retain traders.

  58. MADHUSUDAN says:

    Hi Sir,
    I am first time visiter of your chapters,and i can say this is the best content i ever had.A very simple and a very clear content,it it just like a teacher wow know how to teach.
    First query:say i purchased a future at 200 per share with a lot size of 100 and a margin of 20%,so basically i paid 4000 rs and assume i incurred a loss of 100 share in the end so basically i loss inr 10000,so how they will recover rest 6000???
    Second query:Somewhere in chapter u wrote,Assume on 24th Dec 2014, the stock price of TCS has gone up from Rs.2374.9/- to Rs.2450/- per share, by virtue of the increase in spot price, the futures price would also increase. This means as per the agreement, I am entitled to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share ………I think there is a take,cuz stock price was never 2374 it was 2359 or 2362???Please clarify this for me.
    Thanks in advance.

  59. vinod says:

    kartik one doubt. suppose i hold 1 lot of bank nifty whose contract expires on 25 Aug 16.however on 25 aug 16 i find that i m incuring a huge loss. so can i decide not to square off and roll over my position to next month i.e to last thursday of september (like we convert from mis to cnc in stocks) or is it mandatory to square of position once the contract date is over

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The August contract will be invalid after Aug month expiry…so Aug contract will be invalid anyway. So technically you are buying Sept contract as a fresh position…and as long you are sure that about your directional view, then you can stay in the trade.

  60. VINOD says:

    so does that mean i have to square off my position mandatorily (which i will incur a loss in my case) and then retake a positon in next month futures or simply i can roll over my position from august to september without bearing any losses???thanks in advance kartik

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Either which ways you will be settled for August contract (weather you sell it yourself or hold to expiry)..so you will have to incur the loss for Aug contract.

  61. VINOD says:

    thanks kartik.love u n ur style of teaching

  62. sagar jaiswal says:

    there is loss in future trading but the turnover is more then 1 crore.what will be the income tax implication

  63. Vishal Saini says:

    Someone asked following query in comment but I guess you missed to reply…..Could you help with that????

    Say i purchased a future at 200 per share with a lot size of 100 and a margin of 20%,so basically i paid 4000 rs and assume i incurred a loss of 100 share in the end so basically i loss rs 10000,so how they will recover rest 6000???

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well, the loss has to be measured in terms of Rupees and not number of shares. In case you lost 100 Rupees, then your loss is 2000.

    • Satish Mohite says:

      If you haven’t suffient balance in your account your share will automatically be aquered off as soon as it reach to zero balance.

  64. hariharan says:

    sir,in option trading can I squire of my position before the day of expiry or I should wait for the expiry date..for example I bought one lot of DLF ( CE ) On 25 /08 /16.the option expiry date is 29/09/16 sir, can I squire of this option before the expiry date of 29/09/16 or I should wait till the expiry date 29/09/16

  65. Satish Mohite says:

    Suppose I buy future@2520 at the same time coressponding underlying is @2510, next day underlying is @2515, what will be my profit/loss?

  66. Harsha says:

    Could you please answer my query.
    If contract is held till expiry in future and it expires.

    Then does one need to settle profit/loss only or take delivery of stock too.
    If need to settle only profit/loss then why is it called obligation.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Settlement is only in terms of cash, there is no physical (stock) settlement. Its called obligation because you are bound by market regulation to accept the P&L of the position.

  67. Harsha says:

    on expiry will future price be always lower than spot price, or could be vice versa based on rollovers or bullishness

  68. Harsha says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I read that trading in F and O ban scrips attracts penalty of 5k per contract. Is this correct.
    And is it applicable even if contract is closed same day(intraday sold off too).

  69. Harsha says:

    Thanks Karthik.

    Would like to know zerodha policy in this regard. Is it correct to assume that scrip was in demand and as it exceeded possible quantity it goes into ban. And so as soon as its out of ban it would show good movement.
    Risk could be number of days it doesn’t come out of ban and NSE fine.

    Another question is : why rollover is done. when anyhow existing contract is closed and reopened.
    What does 1 gain by rolling over. Or is it just terminology for this action with no real advantage.

  70. Rushab says:

    I have a kite account. how do i participate in futures trading?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You develop a view on the stock (either bullish or bearish) and act upon it by either buying or selling the futures.

  71. BSrana says:

    lucid language in which you explain the concept is highly appreciable.. Replies to the quarries further adds to learning process. My question is regarding calculation of profit in futures. My understanding is that the profit or loss on future trade is calculated on the basis of price prevailing on the date and time of exiting from the position or expiry date as the case may be only, and any fluctuations in the intervening period have no bearing on it. except perhaps margins have to be maintained sufficiently to cover any down fall in futures price.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thanks, and I’m glad you liked the content here 🙂

      The only price that matters for P&L calculation is the end of day closing price.

      • BSRANA says:

        Thanks for your reply that too on Sunday it self I had read only chapter 3 on futures I ought t o have read chapter 5 and all other material on the subject before seeking clarifications. i have only peripheral knowledge of stock market, but your write ups have generated interest in the subject .Who knows, it may be turning point .

  72. Vishal Oturkar says:

    I am sorry if my Question is nt making sense.
    in future contract if i am not correct as per my expectations , and i am in loss , still i have to buy that share lot with loss at the time of expiry date ? am i right ?

    if i will anable to buy

  73. abhishek kumar sah says:

    lets say i place a limit order=
    Buy 1 lot nifty futures limit order Rs 8100 (NRML)and the order gets successfully executed.
    Now after an hour i want to square off the existing position and short 1 lot nifty, for this i place the order as follows=
    Sell nifty futures 2 lot limit order 8120(NRML).
    WILL THIS ORDER SQUARE OFF THE EXISTING LONG POSITION AND SHORT 1 LOT ?? or we have to first square off the existing buy position first and then place a separate short order?

  74. Darshan Ravanang says:

    Incase I have purchased 1 lot of a future (assuming TCS lot size 125), By means of square off OR selling I have to sell the complete lot i.e.125 or can i partially sell from the lot (assumption sell 75 in profit) and hold on to 50 from the lot? Is partially selling allowed in futures??

  75. charan says:

    hi sir, i want buy one lot of nifty future of january2017. how much money i need to purchase that with present nifty trading value.

  76. Rajesh says:

    Hi. Can you pls clarify if the below statement was a typo. You say : I have a counterparty who is buying 125 TCS shares from me at Rs 2374. Its actually me who is buying TCS at 2374, isnt it? I am not trying to identify typos, but just want to make sure I am getting the concept right.

    What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well, it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I’m not sure if I’m addressing your exact concern. But I hope this helps –

      When you intend to buy the shares (before placing the order) you are considered a buyer. When you’ve bought the share, you are considered a shareholder/futures holder….and when you intend to sell the existing shares you are considered a seller.

  77. LS says:

    Hi Sir,
    Thank you very much for the teaching very easy to understand for newbies like me . I would like to know whether you would open a topic on futures spread trading especially on commodity like FCPO ( Crude Palm Oil Futures) too?
    Thank you, rgds

  78. Sudipta says:

    Hi Karthik,
    First of all, thanks a lot for your easy-to-go explanations and great education material. I appreciated your teaching style elsewhere as well, but it seems no appreciation is enough – you have designed this education blog so very well ! Really a great piece of work.

    I have initially did some successful trades in Options for last 2 weeks, and with some confidence & this tutorial, I tried to explore futures trading today. It was a successful experience with Rs. 2500 net profit. And I am happy. Yes, the amount seems ridiculous, here people talk about lakhs of Rs but I am a small trader :)) I just took some liquid scrips (Infy, Airtel, LIC HSG FIN, Tata Steel). I followed their charts (1 min intraday) and tried to identify a trend or pattern. When I felt confident, I took a position long/short, and glued myself to the terminal. With a small movement of the scrip, I came out with a small profit. My luck helped me in the first trade. I got 500 Rs. profit. Then in the 2nd trade I put a stop loss such that my loss will be limited to Rs 500 which I just earned. I did not wait for long and with a small profit itself I came out. May be just 0.4 or 0.5 points movement of the underlying price. I repeated this for 6-7 times in various scrips and started collecting small profits. Together end of the day it is giving me Rs 2500 after deducting the brokerage, tax etc.

    Now the question is here. I have double checked with Zerodha brokerage calculator and it does show that I am in profit. This is my first time in futures. So I am little surprised – is it really so easy ? Or am I missing some hidden charges or taxes which will eat out my profit ? I have this doubt because I think it is very easy to do and anyone can do without much knowledge about the business, global & national events or even without any robust risk management. Just follow the chart for 15-20 mins at a stretch, develop a feel how it is behaving and take a chance or come out. If it is really done in this way, then I am fine. But I thought I will double-check with you before I put myself into some unknown problems. Trading in futures seems so much easier than options where I was playing for last 2 weeks (and both of them give much more return than Equity, needless to say).

    Thanks in advance. Please help me to understand if there is any risk I am unknowingly taking or if any other taxes or charges applicable apart from what is shown in Zerodha brokerage calculator.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sudipta – Congrats on a successful trade 🙂

      Yes, it is that easy. You just need to identify a stock, observe its price movement, and place a trade. But as you might have guessed, this simplicity can be quite misleading especially when you see price going against you.

      Just keep at it, be rest assured the markets will teach you few valuable lessons. Hopefully, this should not come to you at a high cost 🙂

      Good luck and happy trading.

      • Sudipta says:

        And the market taught me the lesson today 🙂 I was playing with Infy on the long side. My intention was to capture 1 point movement, that is enough. Before I could even put a stop loss order, the price moved down by 10, and then as I was perplexed, it just went down by 20 points more. All that I earned in last 2 weeks, vanished within few minutes. Lesson learnt: We should stay away on the result date. Infosys result was not really so bad to give up all gains, but market behaves in its own way. Better to stay away on the result date, specially for new traders like me.

        I will build the profit again bit by bit whatever time it takes. Happy to learn 🙂

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Well, the result day can offer some really great opportunities. You will discover this when you learn options. The bigger lesson I guess is on estimating Risk to Reward expectation of a trade. You need to ask yourself if a 1 point gain on Infy was worth the risk?

          • Sudipta says:

            Hmm true. Actually I understood the real reason behind the damage was a delay in putting the stop loss. We should use BO type order with a stop loss. I was not aware of it. I now learned. I was manually putting the stop loss order after the execution of the primary order, and there was 1 min of delay or so. And I had to pay a big cost for that. Otherwise the loss would have been limited. You are very correct that we must judge the risk-reward appropriately. After we assess that, we need to use stop loss for limiting the loss. That was my bigger mistake.

            I have a technical question Karthik. I analyzed the whole situation and here is the background. The price was hovering around 993 – oscillating within a range from 991 to 999. It traversed that range for at least 6 times (around 9:40 AM). It already corrected from 1024 to 992 and then it was range-bound. I got convinced and went for a kill. I admit my mistake. The question is different. It was at 993. I placed the order and it was executed. I was on the 1-min candlestick chart. I was looking very closely for each granular oscillation of the price. Suddenly, really suddenly, within a moment it went from 992 to 972. And the volume for this moment went up very very high. This volume was the highest trade volume in the day. The price dipped by 20 points in a single moment. The question is, how this is possible ?

            If I assume that some big guy put a buy order of a big quantity, even then, he must have not ordered at 972 because the current price is 992 and his buy order for 972 will not get executed. There must be so many other buyers with price between 972 and 992. So the price is supposed to come down in a gradual manner – not all of a sudden. If I assume that some algo trade was set with decreasing price quote at each small difference and with high volume, then also the price should come down gradually with execution of each order. I could not understand how an extremely liquid stock like Infy can fall by 20 straight points just in a moment (it already corrected by 30 points – so there must be enough buyers in the system). If you can technically explain such sudden fall, I will be very glad. I want to learn so that I understand what is happening behind the board.

            Thanks in advance.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Yes, SL plays an important role, but end of the day it is just the logistics part of the trade life cycle. The real gravy is in identifying the right opportunities with the right risk reward ratios.

            Quite possible, it had a massive correction from 1024, consolidated at 990 range before the trend continued further down. You will get an understanding of this when you look at the nature of corrections and uptrends across multiple stocks and indices.

            Chances are there was a big short order placed which would resulted in such a dip. It could have come from an algo or a trader.

  79. Abhijit says:

    Hey Karthik thanks for valuable lessons. I am not able to understand the full cycle of Future contracts here. I understood the perspective of person buying the contract or trading it with someone else before expiry. But how does this contract cycle start? I mean when you say TCS stock went down but you still have to buy 125 shares from “someone” at high price, who is this “someone”? Or how to become this “someone”?
    I am taking a guess: does this “someone” makes the contract than he want to buy 125 shares from owner of this contract at 24th Dec? If yes then how to be that “someone”, make the contract and list it on exchange?

    • Abhijit says:

      *does this “someone” makes the contract that he wants to sell 125 shares to owner of this contract at 24th Dec*
      Sorry for error.

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        Replied earlier.

        • Prattham Pant says:

          These modules are gold . Thanks for such lucid explanations

          My question
          So If A enters into a futures contract with B, does it mean A ends up actually buying 125 shares of TCS held by B making me a percentage owner in TCS ?

          “it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share. This futures agreement between me and the counterparty expires on 24th Dec 2014.” . I am actually buying the shares from him right ?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            No, these are just contracts with expiry dates and the difference is cash settled. So you won’t really be a shareholder in the company.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      This someone is called the counter party 🙂

      For example, I place an order to buy TCS futures on my terminal at a certain price and you place an order to sell TCS futures at the same price, then assuming the price and quantity matches a trade happens between us.

      For me, you would be the ‘someone’ and vice versa. We will never know the identity of someone, but the exchanges would know and their risk management mechanisms ensure the money is credited and debited as per how the trade evolves.

  80. Arun says:

    Sir when we place order in nifty future then it get placed at current market price or it get placed when again market touch the price. Please reply it I post this again.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Depends on which order you place – limit or Market order. Market order means you get Nifty futures around the current market price, but limit order you get it when the market touch the prices you have specified.

  81. Manowar says:

    What will happen if I forget to square off the future contracts before expire date and it comes to my day after expiry..?

  82. Vishal Oturkar says:

    Hi Karthik,
    is it necessary that underlying ( Market ) Price is always less than Future contract value ?
    coz today when i went to NSE site for derivative quote i found that future contract value was lower than Underlying Price (Market price).
    i know that derivative value is depend on Market price it will change as per market price fluctuation but is it possible it can be a less than Spot price ?

  83. Jamuna says:

    Dear sir,
    I have a basic question in Options data positions. If open interest on ITM call options and OTM put options have seen huge reduction & increase in open interest in seen in OTM call option & ITM put options, shall we construe that the stock is in bullish momentum. Also, if the nearest OTM put option has shown increase in open interest, it might indicate that it is hedged at that level for the long positions in the stock. Would you be able to clarify.
    Regards… Jamuna…

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I think you will only be complicating the matter by combining the moneyness of an option along with its OI. I’d suggest you look at spot data long with its volume to arrive at a broad overview.

  84. Gaurav Sethi says:

    Suppose I have a 1 lot of Just Dial for next month i.e. March. Now it goes into a ban. I am sitting on profit. Can I square off my position during the ban, or Will I be incurring penalty. Also what if the stock remains under ban on Expiry too. Than, At what price will Exchange sell my lot. Will it be sold at price before the day of ban period or at the underlying price on expiry.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can only unwind the position during ban period, no new fresh positions can be initiated. So, yes you can unwind. Remember, only derivative contract is banned, not its spot. Spot and futures prices converge at the expiry. Hence, the futures price will reflect the spot …even during the ban period. So that will be the price you will get settled at.

  85. Prakhar Srivastava says:

    Sir , I don’t understand few things.
    Q1 When I agree to buy a future contract do lot*price i.e the future amount immediately gets transferred to the seller account?
    Q2 do the seller at expiry quickly buys the stock at low price(assumed) in the open market and sell that to us .So basically if the prices really go down then how does seller take advantage of low price in the market(at expiry)?How does he realize the profit?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) No, margins are blocked for both the seller and buyer. They are released once the trade is squared off. The daily P&L are adjusted via M2M.

      2) It is all about the point of view. The seller makes a profit if the price goes down and buyer makes money if the price increases.. Remember, at a given point only one of them makes money. It is all cash settled and there is no requirement of actual deliver of shares.

  86. abhishek kumar sah says:

    From whre can i get the open interest data for nifty and bank nifty?

  87. Karthi says:

    Sir do you take stock futures for swing trading ? Is it advisable ?

  88. manoj says:


    Is it possible to close the lots one by one ,even if its bought at the same time and how to do that ? I normally click exit.Haven’t tried futures yet with zerodha,so before I do wanted to clarify this point.



    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can exit piece by piece. Suppose you have bought 10 lots, click on F2 to invoke the sell order form, enter the desired number of positions to sell (maybe 2 or 3) and submit the order. Thats about it.

  89. satish says:

    If there is a bearish sentiment in the stock for long run (next one year). Should the spot price be above than near month future price and near month future price be above than far month future price ( 420 (spot price) – 410 ( Near month futures price) – 400(far month futures price))

    If there is a bullish sentiment in the stock for long run (next one year). Should the spot price be below than near month future price and near month future price be below than far month future price ( 420 (spot price) – 430 ( Near month future price) – 440(far month future price))

    Please correct if my view is wrong.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Irrespective of the sentiment in the stock, by default the futures tends to be higher than the spot. They invert due to short term supply demand mismatch.

  90. Manhar Kothari says:

    how to calculate F & O profit for income tax purpose. Iam a individual and buying & selling stocks for my gain or loss.
    F & O is treated as a business gain/loss in the hand of individual ?

  91. Rinku says:

    Hi, I have seen we can trade future as Normal & MIS. Trading Normal future were already explained in depth. Can you please help to understand how to trade future as MIS.

  92. Ankit says:

    Hello karthik sir
    Sir Why there is standered lot size concept instead of just single loose stock or index

  93. Ankit says:

    Okay….. Thanks sir

  94. Sriram says:

    I have account for equity and commodity in Zerodha. How can i start trading in future?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You just have to login and start trading. I’d suggest you attend our daily online demo to get stared. The next demo is tomorrow @ 2:30 PM. Check our youtube channel.

  95. mandar joshi says:

    if i buy nifty future and square off on same day is that come under non speculative income ?

  96. Ayush says:

    What is required margin in margin block process, is it the contract value or the % of contract value(Margin amount) which we have to pay as advance before entering contract?

  97. Ayush says:

    Sir, what is the minimum days or time limit in which we can squareoff the future trade?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Depends on the expiry of the derivative contract.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      As I mentioned earlier, it really depends on your expectation. You can square off the very next second you entered into the contract or hold till expiry.

  98. Ayush says:

    If i incurs a profit or loss in future trading, would i have to buy and then sell to the partner whom i am in contract with or money will be automatically added or deducted from my trading a/c ?

  99. Ayush says:

    From above example, What if i had short 1 lot of TCS
    1. Would the margin cost be same, &
    2. I would have been end up making the loss of Rs 18044

  100. Pushkar says:

    underlying spot market value of 2359.95 and future value of 2374.90. the difference is 14.95. isn’t this is opportunity under calendar spread ?

  101. Ajesh says:

    Pleade give me a reply
    1. Can i sell the lot share tomorrow mornong ( future trade) which is buy today evening ?
    2. and that have any rules and regulations?

  102. sarathtd says:

    Sir, What about the premium we need to pay to make a future contract.If the appreciation of the asset is less than the premioum, will it be a loss

  103. Abhishek Sachdeva says:

    After you squared off your position at Rs.2460 then the futures contract transfers to some other buyer.
    Now imagine this scenario-
    At expiry, the price is suppose Rs.2400 then the current buyer of the agreement has suffered a loss and the seller(the original one who initially entered into the contract @ Rs.2374) of the agreement has also suffered a loss, then what happens?
    Do both of them pay up? Where does the money go? To the broker?

    • Abhishek Sachdeva says:

      And also can you please explain a full cycle of a contract at 2 times squaring off till expiry from each of the contract holders perspective..

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        Sorry, dint quite get that, can you please elaborate?

        • Abhishek Sachdeva says:

          I meant how does one full cycle of a contract work(when one buyer squares off their position and it transfers to other buyer). How does the transfer of money look from each owner’s perpective?
          Suppose A and B entered into a contract and then B squared off and sold it to C. Now A squared off and sold it to D. Final contract between D and C. So how does the money transfer look like in this situation?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Ah ok. Remember, futures works on a M2M basis, so whatever if your P&L obligation, at the end of the day it gets settled. So does not matter what the counterpart does…the final contract could be between A and D as well…margins are blocked and everyday the funds are settled via M2M.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      In derivatives, especially futures, one of the parties always makes money…i.e either the buyer or the seller….and at any point, only 1 buyer and seller for a given contract.

      • Abhishek Sachdeva says:

        ”At expiry, the price is suppose Rs.2400 then the current buyer of the agreement has suffered a loss and the seller(the original one who initially entered into the contract @ Rs.2374) of the agreement has also suffered a loss, then what happens? Do both of them pay up? Where does the money go? To the broker?”

        But if the price at expiry is 2400 then the one who bought it at 2460(new buyer) has also suffered a loss and the original seller (2374) has also suffered a loss except the buyer who exited at 2460- he made a profit right?
        Is this correct?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Ok, if market is at 2400, and if a trader has shorted at 2374, then yes, he is making a loss. Also if a trader has bought at 2460, the he too is having a loss. The counter parties to both these trades i.e buyer at 2374 and seller at 2460 are making money.

  104. abinaya says:

    hello, pleas answer as soon as possible, its urgent
    suppose i buy a future contract from B at 2315 per share but i am squaring off and selling it to C at 2460 per share. .. so new contract will be created between the B and C for rs 2460?
    B will be selling at 2460 at the time of expiry?
    if even c sqaures off again the selling price of B will change?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Since B has sold at 2315, his short price is fixed at 2315 (unless he averages along the way). If C decides to square off then it would be with B or a new market participant.

  105. ABINAYA says:

    i didnt understand… u mean to say when i sell my futures before expiry to C… at the time of contact expiry C will be paying me 2460…from that i will be paying 2315 to B?
    C’s purchasing price will be 2460 wheras B’s selling price 2315 wont there b a mismatch?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Remember there is a M2M that occurs on a daily basis. So money is adjust/settled on a daily basis.

  106. ABINAYAa says:

    when A has bought futures for 2315 and sold before expiry to B for 2460 who will be paying the profit 145 per share to A?

  107. ABINAYA says:

    i am really sry karthik…. but i still hav some more doubts…
    A has bought futures from B for 2315, it means at the time of expiry B will be selling at 2315 no matter wat the marketprice is…
    but before expiry A sells the contract to C at 2460…thus the contact between A and B has come to an end…. and new contract has been created between B and C? or A and C?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      When A has bought from B, B could either be squaring off an old trade or could be creating a new one. Assuming its a new one, and there are only 3 players in the Mkt, the trade is now between B and C.

  108. ABINAYA says:

    and C will be purchasing at the time expiry at 2460 ? from A or B?

  109. anilmwr says:

    Hi Karthik,
    What happens to open futures & options contracts if stocks split?
    Doesn’t it change the strike price?

  110. Shashi says:

    Why would someone sell futures for lesser price(lets say after 3 months) and not sell that today. What is benefit for keeping it open.

  111. Vishal says:

    Sir, i am new trader with you.
    I have a query that if i want to buy HDFC Limited Future, then what type of buy order need to place (CNC or MIS) ? & how can i carry forward my position till i want ?
    Please Clarify my query

  112. Ganesh says:

    First of all it’s a good post

    And my question is that, I bought a future with Aug expiry. As everyone knows the expiry will be the last Thursday of the month so it’s 31st in august but the future shows as aug17fut. Does it mean the expiry date is 17th ???

  113. Pabolu Pradeep says:

    Hi Karthik, I’ve read your contents and it’s very great job, keep it up.

    I’ve a question for you regarding arbitrage model of Trading. Please let me know if I’m correct on the below scenario.

    Xyz spot is at 100rs and I have purchased 1000 shares (1 lot=100 shares and I purchased 10 lots) which means I’ve spent 1L and same time I’ve short sold xyz futures @110rs of 1000 shares (10lots) which means CV=110000rs however if we think margin as 10% it’s only 11000 blocked in my trading account. So total 1L spent on spot and 11000 blocked by selling future.
    I’ve heard that both spot and future price will be same on the settlement day. Let’s assume spot and future price to be 80. Now I’ll sell the spot @80 and I’ll be in (80-100)*1000=-20000rs loss and now I’ll also buy future@80 so here my blocked amount will be unlocked rite? and also (110-80)*1000=30,000rs profit, so finally my Net profit is 30k-20k=10k.

    1) is my calculations correct?
    2) when I’m buying future will there be any amount blocked or just unblocking of previously blocked amount will be done?
    3) are there any hidden charges apart from these?
    4) if you have any material on arbitrage model Trading, please share the link.

    Pradeep, 7829443460, [email protected]

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, upon selling the futures, your margins will be unblocked.

      1) Yes, it is correct
      2) Upon square off, the margins will be unblocked
      3) No, however, you have to be aware of charges applicable – https://zerodha.com/charges
      4) Nothing as of now.

      • Pabolu Pradeep says:

        Many thanks Karthik for your response.
        1) So in futures Trading only money will get blocked and unblocked and p/l is calculated only according to (sell price-buy price)*number of shares.
        2) in case of short selling also money will be blocked once and unblocked after buying again and p/l is again as per above formula.
        3) we need not wait till the settlement date and can square off anytime whenever we want.

        Can you please confirm if I’m right on above all.
        Many thanks again!

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          1) Yes. P&L is the difference between buy and sell price times lot size minus charges applicable.
          2) Yes
          3) Yes – you can square off anytime you wish, just like in the case of options.

          • NIKHIL KOTHARI says:

            Is short selling of futures possible in zerodha?

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Yes, thats possible. Make sure your trading account has F&O enabled and make sure you knowledgable about trading futures and options.

  114. Saurav says:

    Hi karthik,
    You are doing excellent job, by teaching newbie like me.
    But, I have a question, you said that in futures one party suffers loss and his counterparty books that as a profit.but, if you see the nifty it is continously rising from years to years. If, someone is buying nifty futures continously as the futures expires he buys the new futures contract and the making the profit as nifty moves more high point, in that case who is suffering loss. Please explain…

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The guy selling the futures to the buyer 🙂
      Remember, there is always a seller and a buyer who make up a contract.

  115. abinaya says:

    hello sir,
    when i sell future contracts to mr x at 2500 and before expiry mr x sells it to mr y for 2600 ….and at the date of expiry price is 2550 mr y will pay 2600 to whom? me or mr x?
    can u explain the steps n detail…like who will get how much profit….
    and when mr x square off… does my future contract comes to an end?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      X is out of the market since he bought from you and sold to Y. So upon expiry, both you and Y have an open position and therefore the contracts will be settled between you both. Here X makes a profit of 100, you will lose 50, and Y will lose 100.

      • abinaya says:

        y will lose 50 ryt? so when x sells to y at 2600.. i pay him the 100 according to m2m and at expiry y pays 5o to me and hence my net loss is 50… am i right?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Abinaya, I’d suggest you try and do a simple low-risk futures trade, maybe 1 or 2 lots if USD INR futures. When you experience a futures trade, you will understand this better 🙂

  116. Ratheesh says:

    Am a bit confused with futures and the original stocks 🙂 For example, I bought 2400 (1 lot) of ITC at the rate of 3 INR with trigger price of 315 August 31. Right now it went upto 0.50 INR which incures a loss for me.

    So what you mean by the term “agreement”?

    1. Can I buy the ITC stocks at whatever the price when I bought its futures? Lets say It was 280 INR and now at 290 INR – possible to buy this at 280 as per agreement? If so how many stocks I should buy and on which date?
    2. I know I am going to loose some money as there is no scope for ITC to get up to 315 in next few days. So can I match this loss by buying ITC stock? Lets say I bought when it was 280 , now it is 300 – not much improvement in futures price though, I still see loss there.
    3. If I can buy the ITC stock is there any constraints in numbers (like need to buy exactly 2400 stocks) or any date (like August 31 only?)

    May be the queries look weird 🙂 BUt I am in a mess haha!

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you buy a futures contract and the price goes up, then you make a profit.

      1) You can buy it at the available price in the market
      2) Stock price and futures converge on the day of expiry
      3) Yes, you will have to buy it lots and its multiples. So if 2400 is the lot size, then you will have to buy at least 2400 or in multiples of that.

      Good luck and happy learning.

  117. MANOJ DIWAKAR says:

    Dear Mr. Karthik,

    I must congratulate you on putting great efforts in preparing the contents for a complex field of Stocks/Trading. All the topics have been presented in easy to understand language and are very interesting to read.

    Kudos to you and Zerodha team. Keep up the good work.

    Big fan of yours,

    Manoj Diwakar

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thanks for the kind words, Manoj. I’m happy you liked the contents here. Good luck and happy learning 🙂

  118. Ravi Kumar BA says:

    If I have a position in futures and On the expiry day:
    1. If I don’t take action, system will automatically square off right?
    2. What specific time of the day it happens?

  119. Ravi Kumar BA says:


    This is more of a question on Kite Trade tool.
    If i have a CO “Short” order for Equity of 100 stock at Rs. 200… Then a SL order of say, Rs. 203 is also placed.
    Now, If i have to book profit when stock is at Rs. 197 for only 50 stocks ( i assume price will bottom more)

    1. Can i place a buy for 50 stocks and should i click on “BUY” for that scrip? or any other menu option available?
    2. What happens to the SL order for 100 stocks?

  120. Jim says:

    Hi Karthik,
    Wonderful content.

    What will you assume has healthy liquidity ? I mean when I checked the Infy Sep Fut, the traded volume was 29,915 (31Aug17). Looks quite low to me.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Jim, this really depends on your trading size. For a retail trader, trading 1 or 2 lots, 29,915 is very decent liquidity. For an institutional book, this may not be.

      • Jim says:

        Thank you Karthik.
        Few more queries:

        1) For Infosys, I see that Oct Fut is trading lower than the Sep Fut. But according to your content the current month will be less than mid month expiry. Any reason ?
        2) If we but Futures as NRML but sell the same day. Can it be done? If yes, will it count as Intraday ?


        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          1) The current month less than mid/far month is as per the theory. However, markets could be mispricing (which is common), you need to check if the mispricing is offering you an arb opportunity
          2)Yes for both. If your objective in intraday, you may as well do a MIS

  121. vishal says:

    Hello Karthik,

    I want to hold Stock Futures contract for a couple of days. Regarding this i have a query:

    To identify a trend we have to look spot price charts? Do the resistance levels on spot price charts hold good for futures?

    i notice that sometimes when a Doji is formed on a daily chart of a stock, the futures show a different candle.

    In short, up to what degree we should depend on a spot price chart to trade stock futures? More importantly, What is the thought process behind taking this type of trade?

    I have tried to search the web for this but couldn’t find a satisfactory answer. I have decided to trade channels using oscillators, so this query is holding me back to place a trade- average holding time 2-3 days- Initial investment around 5 lakhs.

  122. Ash says:

    Sorry could be silly, but just noticed you saying “In the next chapter we will discuss about margins, a very important aspect of futures trading. ” But next chapter is actually “Leverage & Payoff”, you may want to correct it.

  123. Kamal NS says:

    How to buy future stocks?
    1.I purchased future stocks in MIS,BO or CO to get higher leverage that means it’s a intraday activity & I’ve to sell by the end of the day.
    2. If I buy future stocks normally then I can hold till the expiry date,Isn’t it or If i buy future stocks in MIs or BO then it’ll be squared off by end of the day.
    Please tell me where I’m wrong or correct me kindly

  124. Mateena says:

    Why don’t I buy a certain amount in spot and sell it in the futures market since the prices are different?

  125. Aditya says:

    Hello sir,
    Is it possible to sell future just the day before ex dividend date and square off on the ex dividend date and earn dividend*lot size risk free arbitrage?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Futures position holders will not receive dividends, Aditya.

      • Aditya says:

        Sorry I framed wrongly , I meant on the ex dividend date the price of the underlying will decrease by the dividend amount right ? , So can i sell futures just the day before the ex dividend date and square off on the ex dividend date and benefit from lot size * fall in the underlying on ex dividend

  126. trader says:

    Hi, I have 2 questions:
    1) what if i mistakenly place an order on an f&o security that was under ban? will the system execute this order or will it be rejected? how can i know about the stocks that are in ban?
    2) if i have a long position in a Call option and the contract goes into ban after some days. on day of expiry it is an ITM option now. Because of the ban i was not able to sqaure off on time. even if no new fresh position is created during ban period, i will not be able to sell the contract during the ban period to some other party because for him it will be a fresh position. So what will happen in such a case?

  127. Sudipta Chakraborty says:

    Sir, which chart should i refer for futures trade, the eod chart of the stock or the future? One more question… Suppose Spot price of ABC stock is ₹100/-and future price is ₹130/-. My view on the stock is long. After analysing the EOD chart of the stock i decide stop loss price to be ₹10/- below of the spot price. So in the spot market my entry price is ₹100/- and stop loss ₹90/-. But, if i buy 1 lot future of this stock, then my entry is ₹ 130/-. In that case should I place my stoploss ₹10/- below i. e at ₹120/-?

  128. Sumit says:

    Hi, is it possible to buy futures contract of Nov 2017 in this month for INTRADAY trading?

  129. sahil swaroop says:

    hi Karthik Rangappa
    my name is Sahil I had a question as u have explained in your chapters that the price of futures is derived from their underlying .like HDFC futures moves based on HDFC spot chart right .so we can make our buy and sell decisions based on spot chart of an asset and place trades in futures.So can a trader trade HDFC futures from HDFC spot chart by that I mean I want to place A BUY ORDER and place entries and stops on HDFC spot chart and as soon as my entry is hit on HDFC spot chart the system buys HDFC futures at market for me and later if my stop gets hit on HDFC spot chart then system sells HDFC futures at market.so this sought of conditional order facility is available with zerodha or not ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Absolutely! You can (rather should) trade based on the spot charts. No, these conditional orders are not available.

      • sahil swaroop says:

        what do u think is zerodha will work on it? .because as a futures trader I trade with IB brokers US-based broker which provides conditional orders for futures.please share this feedback with zerodha so they can work on it .and it will be convenient for futures trader in India to trade futures via conditional orders I think it is much needed.

      • sahil swaroop says:

        what do u think is zerodha will work on it? .because as a futures trader I trade with IB brokers US-based broker which provides conditional orders for futures.please share this feedback with zerodha so they can work on it .and it will be convenient for futures trader in India to trade futures via conditional orders I think it is much needed.

  130. manish says:

    Sir, strategy that u told us in the Tech analysis finale (help u getting started) chapter will work in future and option trading???

  131. Vinayak says:

    First of all, you guys are doing some great work! Thank you for all this.

    Secondly, Is that a typo above section 3.3 or am I misunderstanding something?

    Possible typo:
    I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from ** me ** (counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share.

    Is it supposed to be “me” or “him”?

  132. Ravi says:

    Hi, Holding a futures contract, always changes the price at which I have bought. E.g the average trading price even for one lot came down drastically because the underlying price fell down since last 7 days. This even reduced my losses. Can you give the reason for this.

    • Ravi, your buy average will always remain the same. Your margins are adjusted on a day- to- day basis based on the day’s change. If the position went in your favour, money is added to your account and removed, if the position goes against you. You can read Chapter 5 of this Module explaining Margins in detail

  133. prasanth says:

    are the future settled on daily basis??
    Ex: ABC NOV futures i bought on 04 Nov for 100 lot size 100 expecting it will go up. on 07 Nov it went down by 90 but i didn’t square off on 07 Nov.
    on 05 Nov end of the day will 1000 rs be deducted from my account?
    on 06 Nov it went up to 120 but i didnt square off 2000 will be credited to my acount?

    My point is will it be settled on a daily basis or the day i square off ( the difference between prices of spot and the price at buy).

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, futures are settled on a daily basis and its called the Mark to Market (M2M settlement. This is explained later in the module.

  134. amit k says:

    first of all i would like to thank you for your great effort for these basic knowledge of almost all chapters of stock market.
    secondly i want to ask a simple question.
    can bank nifty future be traded in intraday?
    and if yes then sir how profit and loss be calculated on nifty future bank .
    if possible then please explain with example’
    thanku once again sir.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can do intraday trades on Bank Nifty. The P&L will be the difference between your buy and sell price, after adjusting for the applicable charges.

  135. Ajax Titan says:

    Query about roll over:
    I had bought (buy) ALUMINI at 136 & current price is 134.40. So my current trading loss is Rs.1.6. So my current trading loss is Rs.1.6

    If the price goes down more, I wanted to rollover the current contract. I have understood from above discussion that I have to sell this current contract & buy next months contract whose current value is Rs.135. (Roll over loss – 135-134.40=0.60)

    So, will my loss be just Rs.0.60 or Rs.2.2 (1.6+0.60=2.2) ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You will have to close the current month contract at 134. So your loss will be 2. However, when you buy at 135, the P&L will depend on what price you will close this. Good luck.

  136. jyotshna says:

    1.) After expiry exchange settles positions, but at what price and how they calculate that ?
    2.) Once contract expires, price of that contract is exactly same as that of spot on that day ( prices at the time of settlement, when exchange settles ).
    3.) After expiry settlement process and calculation is same in F&O, commodity and currency ? If different then plz provide all the details.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) The settlement happens on the closing prices
      2) Yes, price of spot and Fut converges into one price
      3) Its the same, from the trader’s perspective.

  137. Mukesh says:

    Hi Karthik,

    There are many queries regarding arbitrage on spot and future market.

    Is it possible for you to explain in details like how these transaction will take place e.g. buy/sell in spot and sell/buy in future.


  138. Swapnil Sanklecha says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I have a query regarding intraday future trading.
    Yesterday I completed my 1st intraday future trading for Nickel. Incurred loss of 500. Initially, I had added 5000 to my account. Once I squared off my position, it was showing free cash of 4500 till yesterday. But today, account value is displayed as 0. Is it due to weekend? If not, where did 4500 go?

  139. Preethi says:

    Is Futures trading (not options, only buying and selling of Futures contracts) a zero sum game?

  140. isk says:

    I have a Hexaware Future position with a put hedge, when i bought the future position the discount was around 1 rs to stock on 2nd jan and today on 5th jan
    the discount has increased to 5-6 rs why it is so.
    Is it just due to less demand in future or some corporate event is expected before expiry.

    No Dividend has been diclared

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      5-6 is quite normal. The difference between the spot and futures is mainly due to the demand and supply situation.

      • Isk says:

        ok, its almost 1.8% still its normal….. want to know why does this happen when stock is going higher
        does this imply there is strong demand for stock but not for future.

  141. K M Sendhil says:

    Is all the Equity Future Orders are Market Orders. (Both Buying & Selling the same script) ?

    I was experienced in Kite Mobile Platform that, When I was entered the SL-M (Trigger Price) to sell the Future; it went down as market order. It was twice I faced the same problem.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, you can place limit orders as well.

      In SL-M, M stands for market order. Hence it was triggered as a market order.

  142. Archana says:

    Hi Sir,
    Well explained.As you provided few examples, for beginners like me it is really helpful.Got an idea how to buy and sell future contracts.But could you provide the strategies to pick future contract or if possible share Some experiences of traders zerodha has come across.

  143. punit says:

    if i want to buy call above certain price but the price is now 2 or 3 rs below if i place order i think so it will get executed..? for eg bank nifty ce 27000 is at 100 but i want to buy if it comes above 103.5 how should i do this sl order ? and 1 more doubt if i want to buy future of bank nifty above certain price in bo order how should i do?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can always use a Stoploss buy order for this. The order will get executed at the exact price you want. You can use BO limit for that.

  144. Saurav says:

    Hey karthik,
    Can you tell me what strategy you use for nifty futures. I want to do positional trading with 3 month future.
    I am investing in stock market for one year, but new to futures. Doing some demo trading of the future.
    So, suggest me any good strategy which could work perfectly in nifty futures

  145. VIVEK says:

    hi karthik
    I am confused about the settlement mechanism of Future and Option on the expiry day .I want to know whether LTP or CLOSE PRICE is used to settle the contract.
    In one case i shorted ICICI BANK FUT for 360.75 . The CLOSE PRICE was 360.8 and LTP was 360.00. I got contract note showing loss.
    But when last month I shorted ICICI BANK 315 CE then LTP was 313.3 and CLOSE PRICE was 315.3 on the expiry .The contract expired with my Contract In ITM.
    Can you please clarify.


  146. Moreshwar Gawade says:

    As we know the short position cannot be rolled over to the next day in equity trading. Is it also same for futures ? Or can we carryover our short positions to the next day ?

  147. K M Sendhil says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Thanks for your support, I have 2 questions, please provide your guidance…

    1. Can I place the Stop Loss & Target for Futures Contract in NRML trades?

    2. How can we know the timings of result announcements like quarterly, half-yearly & annual; Is there any website which provides?

  148. Ajith says:

    Is Buying or Shorting Future contract same as Buying or Selling any stocks in Intraday? Only difference is here you have 1day time there 1months time?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes. You can do an intraday trade on Futures and also carry forward the position till the contract series expires.

  149. chaitanya says:

    when searched a stock say SBIN in future market it showing three options like SBIN Feb FUT at 296.45 , SBIN Mar FUT at 297.30 ,SBIN Apr FUT at 298.75 and the current price is at 296.40 . If i want to buy a contract of SBIN Apr FUT today at what price can i buy it ? can i buy April stock at current market price ? if so whats the difference between this three stock types ??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      At any point, you will have 3 futures contracts available to you. The difference is in the expiry of contracts. If you are looking at short-term trade, buy the current month contract i.e Feb. Spot price does not have categories like futures.

      I’d suggest you read this module to get a better understanding on this.

  150. Sarvjeet says:

    Hi …
    Just for clarification. If one is not squaring off his position before expiry of the contract; does he have to take delivery of the shares on the day of expiry? Which date would be considered for capital gain purposes? Further if one is squaring off before expiry of contract; would it amount to sort of speculative transaction as in intraday trades?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No not really. Everything is cash settled in markets. Futures trading is short-term in nature, hence short-term capital gains have to be paid. Yes, all derivative transactions are speculative in nature.

  151. Guhan says:

    Hi, If a trading strategy works for an underlying asset, then will it work for its futures?

  152. Guhan says:

    Why do some stocks has derivatives and others don’t?

  153. hari krishna says:

    what is the timings of FUTURES CONTRACT entry to do intraday.
    can we place orders in pre open session and place orders in AMO.
    when i buy a contract in NRML, if price goes down of a share ,should we deposit extra money in account to continue contract till expiry.
    If i buy 100000 shares of a company in EQUITY MARKET, should i have to place DISC QUANTITY and IOC in validity or i have to place through phone. which is better for that many shares to place an order.
    Can i place that many shares at single /fixed price.
    Please explain ,how to place an order of huge shares at single price.

    • 1. Timings for Futures and Options is 9.15 AM to 3.30 PM. You can place NRML trades during this period. MIS orders can only be placed till 3.20 PM after which the auto square-off will run.
      2. Yes, you need to maintain SPAN and Exposure margins to continue holding the position(SPAN margin is strictly required)
      3. You can use either of the options you mentioned. It is ideal you use Disclosed Quantity, so that there isn’t adverse movement in the market and your order is processed in batches. IOC order is most likely to get rejected as the order might not get filled immediately.

  154. Anuragh says:

    Hello Team

    As per the above materials i can understand that I can do intraday with futures as well carry forward the Futures for overnight so which makes me to ask few questions

    a) If i want to do Intraday with future stocks i would have to use the option “MIS” and if i want to carry forward the future stocks i would i have use the option “NRML” right?

    b) In “Intraday Future” stocks let’s assume i buy a stock @ 02:00 P.m and i square it off @ 03:00 P.m on the same day so whatever P/L i make is what am going to take home back right ?

    Please clarify the above

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, thats correct. MIS/BO/CO for intraday. NRML for overnight
      2) Yup, you take it all home assuming you are trading with Zeordha. Else, your broker will take a large part of it as brokerage 🙂

  155. Vikram says:

    Hi Karthik,

    What if both the parties (buyer & seller) opt out of the contract for whatever reason, before the expiry date?

    Eg : Buyers are happy with the price maturity & they want to encash it. On the other hand the sellers want to withdraw as the contract is going against their calculations. So now, both the parties exit the contract but there is a long way to go.

    And if there is a strong reason to say that the price will go up for sure then, who will dare to challenge the contract? And when there are no sellers , there will obviously be no buyers.

    What will happen next?

    And does the trade volume really matter for the majority to win, on the date of expiry ?

    Please forgive me if you feel this question is silly! I’m a beginner & these doubts are popping up from the back of my mind.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      They can opt out anytime they want, in fact, this is the beauty of trading contracts via exchanges. However, they need to settle at whatever price which prevails in the market at the time of their exit. Also remember, different opinions is what makes the markets, as long as there are opinions, the prices will continue to move. There is never a consensus in the market.

      Volumes are important, but not the only thing that matters.

  156. abhishek kumar sah says:

    lets say i hold a futures contract, lot size 100 (price RS 200) and dividend is announced Rs 2 per share. so next day price will open at 198. In cash market i know that dividend will be paid to me. what will happen to the futures contract?

  157. PRATIUSH KUMAR says:

    Hi Karthik,

    First of all, thank you so much for clear and lucid explanation.
    I have a query regarding the P/L for futures.
    Let’s say i bought 1 lot(100 shares) of share XYZ at 25 at a margin of 20%.So, Rs.-500 will be blocked from my account as margin.
    What happens, if on the expiry date the loss incurred is more than the cash that i have in my account.
    E.g.- Expiry date future price is 15 , then loss incurred=10*100=1000, and if after margin deduction of 500, I have only 100 rs left in my account, then how will the differential i.e. (100-500(margin)-100) rs.400 be accounted for as i dont have the money to pay for the same?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      There are systems in place which continuously monitors the margin required and the current P&L, in case of such situations, and in the absence of additional funds in the account, the position will be cut by the broker

  158. Manjunath says:

    If I let a future position to auto square off on expiry, is STT and other taxes are higher than when it is sold before the expiry?

  159. Arun says:

    Hi Karthik you are the best writer and your way of explanation is amazingly unique. Thank you for this wonderful work. I have a question. How do you make your directional view on futures and options trading? Is it through Technical Analysis of spot charts or what? Please explain.

  160. Aparnesh says:

    Hello Karthik,as in the above example you pointed out that ‘someone’ bought the TCS futures from me at Rs. 2460 on 16th December and that person continued holding it till the expiry date when the future’s price was Rs. 2519.25. So my question is that how is that ‘someone’ else going to be profited , I mean from where will that profit money come from after the expiry and who will be eventually at a loss?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      For any futures trade, there is one guy who makes money and the other guy loses money. The money is transferred (via the exchange settlement mechanism) from the winner to the loser.

  161. Vikkas M says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I am new to F&O and learning ! Thanks for this excellent knowledge library !

    What is the key difference between Futures and Options? What flexibility they have versus each other? thanks, Vikkas Malhotra

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Vikkas, I guess its really hard to explain the difference between these two (at least in the comments section). I’d suggest you read the modules dedicated to these topics, will give you a good sense.

  162. mohan says:

    1. in future trading how is the loss or gain calculated. if it is every day then is the looser to enhance his margin on daily basis.
    2. pl explain how to square off the buy or sell positions online. where to click on the trading window.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, the profits or losses are settled every day and any change in margins are updated blocked dynamically
      2) If you are using Kite3, I’d suggest you goto the positions tab and click on exit option. This will square off the position for you.

  163. mohan says:

    Do we have a video of future trading order placement in zerodha. pl give the link if any. The windows shown in the tutorials are not available in kite.

  164. Jaishankar Gadala says:

    As per your explanation in Future trade section the snapshot of TCS future calculated as 125*Rs 2374.90 = Rs 296862.9 but you have highlighted in black box in which the price of TCS future is Rs 2359.95 for 125 lot on 24 Dec,2014 which should be 2359.95*125 = Rs 2,94,993.9 because I am buying for future price .

    If I am wrong please suggest me with example .I didn’t understand the calculation for future price .

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, to transact in futures you need to consider the Futures price and not spot.

      • Jaishankar Gadala says:

        Then why the snapshot of TCS future calculated as 125*Rs 2374.90 = Rs 2,96,862.9 instead of calculation as 2359.95*125 = Rs 2,94,993.9 in which you have highlighted in black.

        1) if I am not wrong ,My concern is if future price as per TCS snapshot is 2359.95 *125 =Rs 2,94,993.9 which expires on 24th Dec,2014 and which is purchased by an individual ,but on 23rd Dec,2014 price becomes 2362,that is Rs 2.05* 125= Rs 256.25 profit can be booked.

        2) Is only big cats trade on futures ,lot is around 200 to 3000 which multiply’s to share price becomes in Lakhs ,what about individual investor is not affordable to any future contracts of companies.provide some example with less lots with less price .

        3) Where do I get or any websites which can provide to read DHRP of any company last 1 yr or 3 yr .

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          The futures price is 2374.9 and not 2359.95.

          1) Yes, the profit can be booked. Not necessary to wait till expiry, but you can book it anytime you want.
          2) Although the contract value looks large, only a small portion of the contract value is required to take a position. This is called the margin
          3) I guess you are talking about the Annual Report – they are available on the companies website.

          • Jaishankar Gadala says:

            As per TCS snapshot future price is 2374 which is -3.77%,what is the underlying value Rs 2359.95 and lots 125 how to read and benefit by the individual .

            I am talking about Margin as per current scenario for future trade no company having price less than of Rs 300 to 400 or more with 500 lots which comes 2 lakhs if Rs 400 to 500 lots which is not affordable to Lower Salaried Class..Can you tell me few of the company in which share price is within the price range Rs 50 to 60 and lots 100.

            not Annual Report, I am talking abt DHRP which company has at the time of IPO .last 2 to 3yrs after the IPO subscription.

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            Lot size is the minimum number of shares that define a single futures contract. These concepts are explained in the chapter.
            The minimum contract value is as per the exchange directives. Most contracts average around 5L.

  165. Satish says:

    Can I sell futures next day? if I can then, are there any risks involved like in equity of auction,etc?

  166. Jaishankar Gadala says:

    why are you not answering as per my request question
    1)As per TCS snapshot future price is 2374 which is -3.77%,what is the underlying value Rs 2359.95 and lots 125 how to read and benefit by the individual .
    2) is there any company with less margin can I trade Rs 10k to 15k ,pls give few company names.
    3)not Annual Report, I am talking abt DHRP which company circulates or has it during IPO process,after 1 to 2 yr of IPO still DHRP is available or during the IPO only available ,where it is available ,pls let me know.SEBI tells read the offer document carefully.

    • Jaishankar Gadala says:

      why are you not answering as per my request question,
      1)As per TCS snapshot future price is 2374 which is -3.77%,what is the use of underlying value Rs 2359.95 and lots 125 how to read and benefit by the investor.
      2) is there any company with less margin can I trade Rs 10k to 15k ,pls give few company names.
      3)not Annual Report, I am talking abt DRHP which company circulates or has it during IPO process,after 1 to 2 yr of IPO still DRHP is available or during the IPO only available ,where it is available ,pls let me know.SEBI tells read the offer document carefully.

      • Karthik Rangappa says:

        Jaishankar, you need to read the whole module to understand the relation between, spot and future.

        1) Futures price is always at a slightly higher price to spot (under most circumstances). When you buy futures, you multiply the lot size with futures price i.e 125*2374 and pay only a small portion of this as margins
        2) You should try commodities or currencies. Margins are less than 15K in most of the contract
        3) You can find all the DRHPs filed with SEBI here – https://www.sebi.gov.in/sebiweb/home/HomeAction.do?doListing=yes&sid=3&ssid=15&smid=10

        • Jaishankar Gadala says:

          Thanks, for your valuable information ,your Zerodha site is superb in every aspects related to Stock Market,no other entity or company provides so deep information to individual or investor who are keen to get knowledge .Hats off your Team & keep it up.

  167. mohan says:

    The replies to the query are excellent. But being a beginner i have lots of doubts. please bear with me.
    In future trading when should i put the stop loss. Is it before i place the order. for eg. when i bought a contract for Rs. 500 how much stop loss should i put. Can we change the stop loss latter. please give a detailed reply.
    Is zerodha conducting classes for traders ? please reply.

  168. Pranay Kumar Jain says:

    So on the date of expiry of contract do we have to take delivery of such shares or it is settled in cash

  169. ROCKY says:

    Thanks for your very educative answers. Can you please tell me under what conditions the strike price of futures is above the spot (cash)price and under what circumstances future price is lower(discounted) than spot price.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Rocky, this is purely based on demand and supply situation. Sometimes things like corporate action would also matter.

  170. pavan raj shetty says:

    Can I get the contract notes for carry forward positions???

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, a contract note is like an invoice generated for the transaction you carry out in the market. So whenever you take up any transaction, a contract note is generated.

  171. Nitesh Singh says:

    I understood everything, I guess…. But one thing I’m not getting……
    How to activate FnO feature to my account?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Nitesh, please contact the support for this and they will help you enable the F&O segment.

  172. chidambaram says:

    Hi Sir,
    1. When a big shot buy a huge amount of quantity (say 100 to 200 lot) in market price but in spot market of that stock no such transaction take place then in this situation wont there be a deviation between spot market and future market price.(which suppose to track the spot market price).
    2.If a person(big shot) but say 10 to 20 lot in future market first and then if he himself buy a huge amount of stock in spot market (eg .a bulk deal) then obviously the future price which track the spot market would increase and wont he benefit from that ? In this case the retail investors would be cheated right?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, this will cause an impact, especially if its stock futures where liquidity is lower.
      2) Bulk and block deals are outside the markets, so won’t really impact the price.

      • chidambaram says:

        HI sir,
        I mean to be not really a block or bulk deal but any transaction of huge quantity.

        If a person(big shot) but say 10 to 20 lot in future market first and then if he himself buy a huge amount of stock in spot market , then obviously the future price which track the spot market would increase and wont he benefit from that ? In this case the retail investors would be cheated right?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          But this could very well be a strategy. I see nothing wrong with as long as he is doing with his own money. If its client’s money, then he is doing something called as ‘Frontrunning’, which is not allowed.

      • chidambaram says:

        1) Yes, this will cause an impact, especially if its stock futures where liquidity is lower.
        In this case will the stock (spot) price will tend to increase or will the future price will revert back to the original level from where it rose or will the future price will tend to increase leaving stock price behind it?

  173. Shyamal says:

    I want to take a Long position of Maruti Future June2018 Expiry on 23.05.2018. Is there any formality on May Expiry date( 31.05.2018) to carry on with this position till June. Do I need to do anything on this day( 31.05.2018) ?

    I am sure I can hold the position without having to pay any extra DP Charges.

    Shyamal B. Singha

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can directly buy the June expiry. No need to buy the May series. Btw, there are no DP charges for buying futures.

      • Shyamal says:

        Thank you Karthik. You are a great help/Institution for small retail traders like us. I have been following Anton Creil’s videos for a long time and its scary to know how the Industry operates. How the big fish eats the small fish in this industry !!!!!

        But when we have guidance like you we do get a lot of encouragement & motivation to be in this industry and make money.

        Thanks once again.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Shyamal, what I have realized over the years is that the fear and expectations are both set right when you go out and learn, so never stop learning. It will help you stay in the game longer and better 🙂

  174. mohan says:

    Karthik Thanks for all your valuable tips and Zerodha versity I have started making small profits.
    Please tell me the advantages of rolling over a future contract to next month.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Happy to note that, Mohan. Hope you continue to see the profits roll in.

      You roll over a contract only if you are sure about your directional view on the market.

  175. Pt says:

    Hello Karthik,

    I want to setup algo trading on nifty future.

    I have zerodha demat account. What else software required to place buy/sell call automatically using computer?

    From where i get live nifty future data on my pc?

    I want only nifty future data nothing else


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You may want to backtest the algo, please check this streak.tech

      • pt says:

        Hi Karthik, Thank you

        Just checked Zerodha Streak, good platform for back testing and generating alert.
        But what i want is automated order placement by machine when condition triggered.
        Streak gives just alert, and it may be missed.
        can you suggest me solution


        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Glad you liked the platform. There are exchange regulations around complete automation, hence this may not be possible just yet.

  176. Rahul says:

    1) Why are all the futures contracts in my account showing up the date 18th, ex: Maruti Suzuki 18th May FUT, if the contracts are supposed to expire on the last Thursday, then it should be Maruti Suzuki 31 May FUT..right? Please throw some light on this!
    2) Can I invest in futures contracts with more than 3 months validity?
    Thank you.

    • 1. ’18’ mentioned in your contract notes, tradebook, etc means the year of the contract and not the expiry day. Only Bank Nifty contracts will show the weekly expiry date(like Banknifty 07JUN18 27000 CE which means that the contract is expiring on 7th June)

  177. abhishek sah says:

    I have an active trade in jindalstel Jun fut. While placing the stop loss order at Rs 222.5 today, every time the order was getting rejected. So i called the zerodha support and they said that you can at minimum place the order at Rs 222.7 I could not understand this.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Are you sure you placed the trigger price right? Assuming you are long, the trigger price should be at least 222.5 or higher.

      • abhishek sah says:

        Yes yes.. that was not the issue. When i placed the order the price was at Rs 243. and i placed it for SL-M at 222.5
        There was nothing wrong with the order placement, but she said that the exchange has set the limit.. as 222.7 so you can not place it below 222.7 when i asked how can i know this, she said that it can be found in Pi.

  178. sneha sunil says:

    I am new in trading, I have balance of Rs. 6000 in equity and Rs. 2000 in commodity, I was trying to buy NIFTY JUL 10800 PE 1 Lot =75 quantity at the price of Rs. 140 each, but transaction get rejected. Please help me, how much more fund i needed and how i calculate for such transaction, I will be thankful if somebody help me…

  179. sneha sunil says:

    continuing previous post ….. It was MIS transaction, I tried calculator but could not do properly, pl. help

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      In that case, I suspect you don’t have FnO segment activated.

      • Sneha Sunil says:

        Thanks, Can I check FnO segment activation in settings or I need to contact support… thanks again for your advice

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          You can look for it under profile in back office. However, you can always call the support for this. Thanks.

  180. Yuvaraj says:


    I like to know , what will happen to Futures buy, if not Sqaured off( sold) before expiry.

  181. aseem says:

    In section 3.2, it’s written: “I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me”. Note the -> “From me”. But then in the next paragraph in 3.3 in Scenario 1, you wrote: “I am entitled to buy the”. They both are different things. If I’m purchasing a future contract, I’m “entitled to sell” or “entitled to buy” at that price? Please clarify.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      When you buy futures – the counterparty is obligated to sell. Likewise, When you short futures contract – the counterparty is entitled to buy.

  182. Kiran Chengappa says:

    From section 3.2, “What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well, it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share.”

    I think, the above line should be changed to, “………..it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty, agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from HIM………”.
    “From me” is wrong.

    Is my understanding correct?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, guess its a typo. Will fix it. Thanks.

      • Kiran Chengappa says:

        Okay and thanks a ton for the wonderful articles. Zerodha varsity is the best.
        I have checked out knowledge articles on ICICI, Kotak & other sites, but nothing can ever come close to Zerodha Varsity.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Thanks, Kiran 🙂

          We take serious efforts towards educating not just our clients but anyone who is interested in learning about markets 🙂

  183. Divyanand says:

    Hi karthik,
    The info is super. It’s very amazing to see how easily you explain such a complex topic. It’s very useful.
    My question:
    (1) Suppose you buy a future & hold it. After expiry of future, will the demat account be credited with shares ?
    (2) While buying future, only amount equal to the margin will be freezed. Suppose we buy a future & hold it. On the expiry date do we need to pay the rest of the amount ?

  184. Chanu says:

    Whats that “Get underlying quote”tells in SBI futures snapshot ?

  185. Chanu says:

    Hi Karthick, I’ m reading all these comment , query but Sir their are alot alot of questions in every Chapter. Its time consuming to read 300-500 comment every chapter.

    REQUEST:- PLS SIR, can you include question you find important in chapter itself or else mark the question you think reader should have knowledge about that. Please Sir .
    Thank you

  186. Pardeep Kumar says:

    Can I extend my future contract for another three months after expiry. How many times it can be extended.

  187. Vaibhav says:

    In Section 3.3, Scenario 1, you state that “Assume on 24th Dec 2014, the stock price of TCS has gone up from Rs.2374.9/- to Rs.2450/- per share, by virtue of the increase in spot price, the futures price would also increase.”
    Just want to reiterate that this is a wrong statement. Rs. 2374.9/- was the future price of the TCS stock and not the spot price. So you should write that the stock price has gone up from Rs. 2362.35 (that is the spot price of the underlying on the day contract was entered into).

  188. shiva says:

    Hi, (1) How many times i can trade future in MIS intra day method per day, and (2) What is the minimum investment for futures?

  189. Mahesh says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I have a question on your example – If a Person A enters into a futures contract to buy a lot from Person B for Rs 2374.9 and anticipates prices to rise. However, the next day Person A squares off at 2460 with Person C.
    Assuming Person C holds on to till expiry, Person B will still sell at Rs 2374.9 per share. The question is who bears the differential amount of 2460-2374.9 = Rs 85.1?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The deal is now between C and B. They will settle based on the expiry prices i.e if they hold the positions till then.

      • Mahesh says:


        Who will pay the difference of Rs 85.1 per lot since B had a contract for Rs 2374.9 and not Rs 2460?


        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          At the end, you just need to take the difference between the buy price and sell price and estimate the P&L. Always consider the difference in prices.

  190. shiva says:

    Hi, if i use Rs 300.50 as trigger price in cover order,will the order executed exactly at Rs 300.50 or below the Rs 300.50.

    • The trigger price is for the second leg of the order(The stop-loss).
      For the entry order, you can use Market or Limit order.

      After the completion of the entry order, if the LTP falls below 300.5, the stop-loss is triggered and a market order is executed. The price for execution will be the best available bid in the market(either above or below 300.5)

  191. Ranjith says:

    Hi I need to know about the extended trading hours from sebi in derivatives segment my question is derivatives in the sense future and options move from the change in underlying if there is no underlying cash market after 3.30 then how those future and options move there is no logic

  192. Vishwajeet says:

    In scenarios of 3.2 you have written stock price of TCS goes up from 2374.9 to 2450. But 2374.9 was price of TCS Futures not spot price of TCS. Please clarify.

  193. Mohan says:

    For F&O stocks like JPASSOCIATES and SUZLON ENERGY, could you please explain the scenario if they priced below Re.1( let us say 0.9).
    Jpassociat Sept Fut = 6.6, Jpassociat Oct Fut =6.7, Jpassociat Nov Fut =6.8 (stock quoating @ Rs. 6.6 on Sept ’15) and sudden movement came in a couple of sessions eroding the stock to the level of Rs. 0.9 by Sept ’25.
    Would these circumstances led to the removal of specified stocks from F&O by cancelling of the continuing contracts for the current month or the months that the contracts are allowed before reaching the prices below Re.1? Will there be any such case if NSE blames these companies upon liquidity concerns.
    Thanks in advance.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Interesting scenario, Mohan 🙂

      I guess NSE will continue to allow these contracts, they will remove it from the exchange, if required by issuing a circular.

  194. Ankith says:

    One small doubt.
    As I have never traded in future, so the doubt could look silly.
    At the expiry of the future contract, how the payoff’s happen? Whether at the expiry, the future price at which I had purchased is compared with stock price in cash market? And the difference is paid/received?

  195. Himanshu Sharma says:

    Hi Karthik,
    In case of BOSCHLTD18NOVFUT, LTP is 19,878.95 & spot price is 19,710. So if I sell 1 lot of BOSCHLTD18NOVFUT at Rs. 19,878.95 and buy 30 shares (= 1 lot) of BOSCHLTD at Rs. 19,710, at the time of expiry, profit of Rs. 5068 is guaranteed, no matter in which direction the shares move??

  196. Pratik says:

    Sir suppose I have bought one long future (MIS) and during day I sold 2 lots (MIS) of same stock/index in zerodha kite. Whether there will be 1 long n 2 short in my account or 1 long will get set off with 2 shorts and at end 1 short remains?

  197. Shubham says:

    If I sell 1 lot for current month futures and at the same time I buy 1 lot of Jan ending future contract… because I want to take advantage of low margin required as I am low on budget…I am expecting stock to be bullish..from the purchase day
    1)will I need another margin if I want to transfer my current month contract on next day to minimize the loss as I am expecting stock to rise from purchase day
    2)can the same thing be done in a different way if budget is low nd u want to take margin advantage
    3)will it be still a profitable tradeeven after deducting current months future contract losses ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) You will get a margin benefit, however, you need enough to carry forward the position
      2) Yes, if you are bullish, why not buy a call option expiring in Jan instead? You just have to pay the premium
      3) This really depends on the spread and at which point you will close the position.

  198. Ankit Vaishnav says:

    I have a doubt, please clarify…..

    The last para of Sl. No. 3.2 have mentioned the following:


    “”Here is a critical question – What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well, it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share. This futures agreement between me and the counterparty expires on 24th Dec 2014.””


    I may be wrong but i think the meaning of owning 1 lot of TCS Future Contract, should be that i have digitally entered into an agreement with certain counterparty to buy 125 TCS shares from the counterparty at Rs. 2374.9/- per share on 24th Dec 2014.


  199. Nitin says:

    Your content is very well written.
    Even complex topics are explained very systematically , are to the point and without going into unnecessary details.
    I think it is an art.

  200. 9ifty_50_NFO says:

    What if i don’t want to exit my position for this month can i hold nifty future for long time.

  201. 9ifty_50_NFO says:

    Why do we have limited index for Future trading ?????
    Why SEBI does not increase the time for trading (Intraday Trading) i heard they were about to do the end time near by 05:00 PM ???

  202. 9ifty_50_NFO says:

    Hello sir good evening,

    Somewhere i read at zerodha that we can convert our position (Equity) from MIS>CNC and CNC>MIS can we do this with Future segment suppose here I hold Nifty 31 Jan 2019 NFO can i convert MIS NFO to CNC NFO if i purchase (Buy) NIFTY 31 jan 2019 at 10840 and suppose i am in loss at 10790 can i convert this MIS position into CNC. I tried to explain in my Hinglish way i hope you understand 🙂 and sorry to bother you.

  203. Hemant kumar says:

    Thank you sir, well explained basics of future contract.

    Answer of last two questions is-
    1.Overall profit is booked Rs 18043.75 and per share profit is Rs 144.35.
    2.Overall profit is booked Rs 7406.25 and per share profit is Rs 59.25.
    Sir please check it and make me correct if i am wrong.

    1. if i am seller of the 1 lot of future contract, then Is it compulsary to own 125 shares of TCS or i can enter in future contract without owning the shares of TCS.
    2. Same in case of purchase of 1 lot of future contract at the expiry date of future contract , i would be obligated to purchase of 125 TCS shares.

  204. Hemant kumar says:

    1.Future contract buy/sale mechanism is like equity share buy/sale on NSE/BSE or different from equity share buy/sale.
    2.Underlying asset remain the same, Which is price of TCS shareor. Is there any effect of bonds and debenture of TCS or something else which could effect the future contract.

  205. Santhosh says:

    I am not sure if it is asked before in this section. Suppose,
    I want to invest in nifty for long term say 5 years. I cant buy nifty index as stock. So I buy nifty future and keep rolling it over until 5 years (rolling over to far month contract).
    Of course, I can invest in ETF scheme of any MF. but in nifty future I get up to 10 time leverage. There are two points to consider in this; cost of carry and margin maintenance in starting years. But advantage is if nifty grows by atleast 10%CAGR, I will be making 500% of my investment in 5years. The same strategy can be used for any stock futures but it is bit risky. Please share your opinion on this.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      For you to do this, you will need a lot of money to accommodate margin and mark to market P&L. I personally feel you are better off with buying Nifty ETF.

      • Santhosh says:

        Agreed sir. I may need some margin initially to adjust MTM. But once nifty gains some 10% I can use that profit. I dont get advantage of leverage in ETF. How to encash the advantage of leverage

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Santhosh, if you are fully aware of the risk and have the capital, then I do agree that futures rollover could be a better option.

  206. Kiran says:

    Hi Karthik
    I have basic question about futures
    Suppose i am trading for dish tv futures today and at 10:00am i sold at price 25 for one lot of 8000. so total amount invested here is 8000*25= 200000. this is for delivery and not intraday
    Now suppose it closed at 24 same day, amount of 8,000 will be credited to my account is it?
    Next day if it went to 23 and if i bought at 23 and closed the position, again will i be getting profit of 16000?
    so profit will be 16+8=24,000 is it?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you will make 2*8000 as profits. Both profits and loss are settled the same day.

      • Kiran says:

        Hi Karthik,

        My question was not only for closing pricing amount which is 25-23=2, 2*8000. Will i be getting 2*8000 + 8000(previous day when it went 24 i.e 1*8000) = 24000 which is the total or will i be getting only 2*8000=16000?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Kiran, I’m a little confused about the question. However, the P&L calculation is quite straight forward actually, its the difference between the price at which you buy and sell the option premium multiplied by the lot size. Even if this is spread across multiple days.

  207. Venkat says:

    As we know NSE is introduced delivery mechanism for 46 F&O contracts. IF any one trades and let it expires their stock Future contracts on these 46 F&O contracts should take delivery. My Question is there 200 stock future contracts available in NSE , out of 46 what about the rest of the stock future contracts, suppose if I traded on TCS stock future contracts and let it expires for the month. Do I have option to take delivery of contract size of 250. I would like to know what about the rest of the stocks other than 46 F&O delivery. is there any chance that we can take delivery of the rest.

    Thank You.

    • Nakul Kulkarni says:

      Venkat, SEBI came out with this circular on 31st December 2018 which directs the stock exchanges to physically settle all stock derivatives by October 2019 expiry. The exchanges will move all the stock derivatives to physical settlement in a phased manner. You can refer to this Google sheet to find all the stocks currently under physical settlement and the schedule of movement of the remaining stocks to physical settlement. Currently, you will not have an option to take delivery of any stock which is not under physical settlement until it is moved.

  208. Vishnu says:

    Dear Sir,

    I understand that, in Futures, we can roll-over the positions after expiry of a particular month, to the next month. However I am not clear, at what price this roll-over is permitted after expiry for roll-over. (Whether at market price or at initial contract price)

    For example, suppose I had shorted(Sold) 1000 futures @ Rs. 1,000 in Feb 2019 and suppose if the price is Rs. 1,040 on the date of expiry; there by un-squared loss is Rs. 40,000 as on 28th Feb 19.

    If I wanted to roll-over my position from Feb to March 2019, can I roll-over this position @ Rs. 1,000 at initial price or do I have to square off at Rs. 1,040 and then take up March 19 futures at market rate?

    If I have to square-off at Rs. 1,040, then what is the purpose or benefit of this roll-over facility? Please clarify whether my understanding is correct or correct me if I am wrong.

    Thank you.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Vishnu, you will have to square off the first position and then reinitiate the same position in the next month’s contract. The rate at which these transactions will occur depends on the market. The 40K loss in your example will anyway realise because of the M2M.

  209. Nifty50 says:

    Hello sir,

    I have a question just like buying equity shares for long time (CNC) can we do the selling for long time In Future & Equity market.

  210. trader says:

    what is the maximum number of contracts that can bought/short sold using BO/CO in stock futures and BNF/NF futures at a time for intraday trading?

  211. Shakti says:

    Dear Karthik,
    Very new to trading. Never did future or option. Now at learning phase. After reading your articles i just assuming –if any one buying far month share by seeing the fundamental and technical and at lower phase, he must gain as time will be there for share to increase.

    Please share your opinion.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Shakti, time alone cannot be a factor for capital appreciation. The stock can gradually go down over a period, right 🙂

      • Shakti says:

        Dear Karthik,

        You are right still if you able to buy at very low cost–say near to 52 week low cost. There will be a strong chance to increase the stock what i assume.

  212. Ankesh Kumar says:

    Thanks zerodha.com
    You explained very well. I searched many websites for stock market lessons. I found, you are the best.

  213. Rakesh says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I am facing a problem to purchase NIFTY .
    suggest me how can I purchase,

  214. Anil says:

    hi karthik

    i have basic querry regarding F&O
    1- Suppose if i buy one lot of SBIN @ price of Rs.300 in normal trade after some time on the same day the SBIN price goes up to Rs.306
    now i made a Rs.6 profit .

    can i square off my normal position on the same day (it is not a intraday trade)

  215. Rajendra Patil says:

    If I buy and sell same future stock in the same day whether actual buy and sell price will be applied in contract note or daily settlement price of that stock will be applied? In second scenario I will be ending without profit or loss. This is what I see in my contract note. Is my understanding correct?

  216. parag says:

    Does any charges would cut on daily basis if one buy / sell future ?

  217. Anil says:

    dear sir i have an zerodha DEMAT & Trading A/c & i want to open another demat and trading account in “Zerodha ” because of simple work in one A/c i want to use as trading and other is use for long term investment so it is possible or not please guide to me regarding this matter.

    is it possible to open multiple trading account or not ????

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Anil, you can only open 1 account with a broker for an associated PAN. You cannot open multiple accounts.

  218. Satish says:


    The series is fantastic and clearly explains the fundamentals.
    I have question. What if The counter party search didn’t produce any interested party having opposite view while buying or selling futures or while squaring off my position? Can this happen? What happens to my trade then?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Satish, that why liquidity is important, the higher the liquidity, the easier it is to find parties with opposing views (and therefore a vibrant market).

      • Satish says:

        Yes. liquidity is important but I am curious to know what happens if I entered a buy or sell trade and there are no sellers or buyers for my trade. Does my trade remain there as un-executed?

  219. shashank says:

    i nee d little assistance sir,i bought zinc mini 1 lot 30 april 2019 expiry and i could not square of it.i need to know at which price my zinc mini april 30 expiry was setteled.?
    plz assist me.

  220. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I am not able to buy or sell in a range, till few days back since 2014, i was able to do this through SL order.

    Now, its not allowing me , both in PI as well Kite.

    Please let me know, how to place a buy or sell order in a range.

    More explanatory, for instance crude is trading at 4430 , i want to buy it,between the range 4432-4435.


  221. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    If i use simple buy/sell limit order than, its not allowing me for the range.


  222. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I followed it, and i am aware of this, i just wanted to know , why i am not allowed to give range in limit order.

    Apart from this , has there has been any modification in placing order program, which is now not allowing to place range order for buy or sell.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I think its best if you can call our support desk for this, they will help you understand this better.

  223. MSP says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I did the same, however, they are not able to resolve.

    If there is a range allowed for SL, why the range is not allowed for profit booking.

    I had checked with one broker in Mumbai, they said , its common and happening with their software.


    • The reason you get to place a range in an SL order is to allow for your stop-loss to go through in a free falling market. In most cases, your order will go through on or near the trigger price itself. The behavior is the same with a limit order for profit booking. Your order will go through at the limit price or at the highest available bid(if the price is continuously rising).

      • MSP says:

        Thats ok, my point is,I have entered at 1070, my target is 1080, however, there is a possibility price wouldn’t reach there, to protect my profit, i want to put a range 1075-1080.

        Please let me know, how can i do that.

  224. Vaibhav says:

    Hi Karthik,

    If i buy a future contract 30/5/2019 (@100rs per share) & at the end of the day the Share Prices are Fallen by 2rs so now the Share price is 98. So will some amount will get debited from the margin that i have kept for the share.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, all P&L is mark to market…and therefore your account is either credited or debited on a daily basis.

  225. Rishabh Gupta says:

    I just googled the stock prices of TCS on 23 Dec,2014 ..and it was around 1258 ..and you are saying it was 2519?

  226. Hemant Kumar says:

    Hii Sir !
    As explained in forward contract, when we entered in any forward contract after expiry period we have to oblige as per the contract like in gold example at the end of the contract ABC jeweller has to purchase 15 kg gold and at the same time XYZ dealer has to sell 15 kg gold as per the contract price.
    1) In case of share future can i enter into future contract as a seller without own any shares, because he has to sell as per contract at the end of the contract. What happen if he don’t sale share?
    2) Does future contract buyer has to purchase share at expiry of the future contract becaise, as per contract he is obligated to buy the share and what happen if buyer don’t buy share?
    3) Why anyone purchase contract at the end of the expiry ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, this is possible with futures. You can enter a position without holding the stock in your account
      2) Yes. However, as a futures trader, you can close the position anytime before the expiry of the contract. No need to wait till expiry
      3) Depends on the trading strategy they are following

  227. Hemant Kumar says:

    Sir, suppose i was unable to find buyer end of the expiry or hold the future contract at the end of expiry.
    1.Does it mean now i have to buy share or it can be settled by cash.
    2.what happen if i don’t buy share?

  228. giriraj pungalia says:


    I have following doubt about roll over of future contract. so this is the month of July
    1. I buy a nifty July lot. on the day or before July expiry, can i square it off by selling nifty august lot?
    2.I took a position in nifty Aug/Sep lot in July. Am i bound to settle this transaction on last Thursday of July or that will be happened on the last Thursday of respective month?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) If you intend to square off July position, then you will have to square off by selling the July contract only. If you sell the August contract, you will essentially have 2 different positions. To roll over a long July position, you will have to square-off by selling July contract and going fresh long in August contract
      2) You can square these positions anytime you wish, no need to wait to expiry.

  229. giriraj pungalia says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Thanks for prompt response.
    Regarding my 2nd query, I understand that i don’t have to wait till expiry. My actual concern is will july expiry date have any impact oin settlement of aug/sep lot if i purchase aug/sep lot in july.

  230. chakravarthy says:

    hello sir
    lets say if i bought x company future lot (each stock rs100, lot of 50 stocks) , 10% leverage ie.. 500. so, rs 500 will be locked from my account to buy that lot and next day if stock value comes down to rs 10. then how much amount will be deducted?? is that (50*90=4500)?? and if my account is not in position of that amount. what will happen?

  231. Vijay Nair says:

    In which module/chapter Future Strategies available.

  232. Vijay Nair says:

    thank yonu sir

  233. RANGARAJAN says:


    What will happen if i don’t close the MCX futures contract on expiry date. Is there any penalty charged.


  234. Rangarajan says:

    Thank for the reply. Is it auto squared off or I have to close it manual.


  235. Rangarajan says:


    If no buyer is there in the market to buy my futures MCX contract on the expiry day. What will happen?

  236. Mirza Baig says:

    Hello sir

    i have very small doubt
    1.TCS share value is 2374.9, ok lot size is 125 shares, total value is Rs.296862.5 (no need to pay this amount ok)

    2. how much margin amount i have to pay to buy futures.

    3.what is premium amount

  237. Pradeep says:

    Hi Karthik,
    I have a question on the usage of Futures from positional trading perspective. For the positional trading, Futures are the better options than Options right? Since options got the time value, it might decay fast. But if we can afford to take delivery, dont you think Futures are a better options than options?(Provided one have a good margin) Thanks a lot.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It certainly is, Pradeep. The only issue is that to maintain a futures position, you’d need to ensure there are sufficient margins to support your M2M obligations.

  238. Rahul says:

    @Karthik – I have a question on future contract when carried to next day. If my trade was in profit and still holding to next day, so will that profit be credited to my account and still being on position (just like I have to pay extra in case of loss)? Example below

    Day 1 – Bought Future trade @ 100 and it went upto 120. Profit – 20 per lot. Now I expect to go up further so I am carrying the position to next day.
    Question – Profit of Rs. 20 per lot will be credited to my account same day OR it will be a virtual profit? If it is virtual profit then why loss is not virtual by EOD?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Rahul, the P&L is marked to market (M2M), and gets credited or debited on a daily basis. So you will get the 20 credit by the end of the day.

  239. Rangarajan says:


    If there is no seller for equity futures option contract for a particular strike price, how can i purchase a call option.
    Kindly reply


  240. Sandeep says:

    Hi siri have doubt in futures or option carryforward trading,
    I buyed a nifty ce of 11400 at 150 price in carryforward, so on next day if i sell my position at 160 and closed at 80. so i will get how much amount. will i get 160 x 75 =12000 or 160×75 + 6000 = 18000. Because after selling price has been gone down.

    So can you please explain it.

  241. aravind says:

    how we can use option chain or PCR or voltality ,to pick a direction in future trading ,have any co relation with open interest of option and futures

  242. Nilesh Gaikwad says:

    Typo – I guess the date (precisely year) is wrong
    Location – 1st of the 2 questions you have asked in the end
    Original – 1. What would be my Profit & Loss (P&L) on a per share and on an overall basis had I held
    the TCS futures from 15th Dec 2014 (Rs.2374.9) to 23rd Dec 2015 (Rs.2519.25)
    Correction – 15th Dec 2014 (Rs.2374.9) to 23rd Dec 2014

  243. Sagar Singh says:

    Hi sir , u written by clicking F1 u buy the future derivatives so at that time we have to pay just the margin or the whole amount that is lot* price at that time , and on the other side if we pay the whole amount , the party with we deal this , he/she also purchase it by paying the whole amount ? so how do we determine that who wants to sell and buy , like both of us has pay the whole amount and price goes up, then obviously both of us want to sell , SORRY SIR for writing such big comment , God bless you sir , I just hope u get my doubt

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sagar, in any futures trade, both the buyer and seller have to pay just the margin amount at the time of initiating the trade.

  244. Sagar Singh says:

    Sir if at buying the price is 100 and at the end of the day price become 120 , then at the end of the day my account is credited by 20rs , what if the very next day the price become 90 , so now my account will have 10rs( first 100 then 90 , already have 20rs so -10 from it ) or -30( yesterday it was 120 now 90)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, your account will be initially credited with 20 and then debited with 30. This is called ‘Mark to market’.

  245. anil says:

    Dear Sir,
    good afternoon,

    i have query regarding F&O
    1) on 5th feb i sell 1lot of BANK NIFTY feb FUT @ 30980 and 10th feb its trading @ price of 31110 my total loss = 130*20=2600
    2) on same day i buy a BANK NIFTY CE @ 31100 @ price value Rs.281 and sell on next day @ price 374 my total profit is 1860
    3) o 7th feb i buy BANK NIFTY CE @ 31400 @ price value Rs.183 and sell it on 10th feb @ price value Rs.85 and my total loss is 183-85 =1978
    total loss= 2600+1978=4578
    total profit is =1860
    before taking any trade i have balance in my account Rs. 95358 (when i see my DASHBOARD i got confused bcoz showing margin utilize 81.76k, opening balance 88118k, margine available 6350) actually i just want to know what will be actual loss if i exit my BANKNIFTY FUT @31110

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Anil, the easiest way to check individual P&L of each position –

      1) 31100 CE is profitable – 1860
      2) 31400 CE is loss-making – 1978
      3) Fut position is loss-making, you lose 2600

      Sum of all these is your total P&L. Margin utilization is for taking the position. This is a different thing.

  246. vego says:

    how much money will be blocked as long as we hold the futures contract. explain with example

  247. mohan says:

    Hello sir,

    I have few doubts/questions on future buy option

    1.Say i am buying company ABC Feb20 expiry futures @Rs100 (lot size-1000)
    2.I hold this long position till expiry ( at expiry the price is @Rs90)
    3.I have enough fund in my account to take physical delivery
    4.what will happen after future expiry
    5.The contract will squired-off on expiry date ? ( in that case i will loose 10×1000 = 10,000 ?)
    6.Stocks of ABC will be allocated at what price (90 or 100?)
    7.any advantage of taking delivery, like reducing the loss etc.?
    8.If shot delivery happens for allocation,how much cash will be refunded to my account?

    Thanks in advance,

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, long futures result in delivery of the shares. The buy price will be the settlement price on the expiry day. No advantage as such.

  248. mohan says:

    Thanks for your reply.
    One more question.If i don’t have sufficient fund on my account for taking physical delivery. Will i incur some penalty for that?


  249. Abdul Maajid says:

    1 Question Sir, regarding futures
    Suppose we traded long in Futures (MIS), can I convert my position into CNC before the end of day ?
    Is the procedure same as normal equity trading that requires you to deposit the remaining margin?
    Thank you.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes you can. Long futures in MIS can be converted to NRML (not CNC), but ensure you have the margins required for an NRML position. CNC is for Equity delivery.

  250. Niluthpal Chowhdhury says:

    Sir,I have traded USDINR (currency) in Marfut2020 on the expiry date and didn’t square off my positions before 12:30pm and afterwards I was not able to square off my positions.
    Will I get my Margin amount in respect to P/L.

  251. Gautham Sevarkodiyon says:

    Both parties digitally sign to honor the contract (In Forwards it was forcing to honor till the expiry period)

    (In futures) Do this mean they also honor to exit whenever they want to like you have mentioned above.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, futures give you the flexibility to exit the position whenever you wish, unlike the forward market.

  252. Akash says:

    In derivatives trading, why BUY is referred to as LONG and SELL as SHORT ? Is there any logic behind that ? Also when one needs to close a position, why it is called as SQUARE OFF and not simply CLOSING the position ?

  253. Danish says:

    Hi sir. Under revised SEVI guidelines regarding physical settlements. I have the following query.

    Physical settlements occur if we donot square off positions on or before the expiry date. Otherwise it is cash settled. Is my understanding is right. Please advise.

  254. Tanmay T says:

    Hi, I am new to Options and had a query.

    Say I buy 1 lot of “NIFTY Apr 16 9600 CE” at Rs. 2.3 on April 13. Total cost is 75 × 2.3 = Rs. 172.5 [MIS]. Now at end of day say the price goes down to 2.2 and I decide to hold onto it because I expect a rise in price. Will I have to convert my position? And if I have to why is the margin (balance in account) so high (over 40K) even though the trade is worth a mere Rs. 172.5?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      When you buy options, you will have to pay full deposit. Once you do, you can roll this forward till expiry.

  255. prateek golchha says:

    hi, you are doing an excellent job, kudos to you. i learnt here that prices of spot and futures contract converge at expiry , so suppose i am taking arbitrage trade when is the best time to close my position is it before expiry or i should let it expire on its own to earn maximum gain from arbitrage ??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If it is the current month futures, then its best to let it expire as you’ll get to capture the arbitrage spread completely. Otherwise, you can close it as and when appropriate.

  256. Sunita Arya says:

    How can I SELL Gold now and BUY on a later date to square off the positions.

  257. Ranjith says:

    Hi Karthik, I just completed technical analysis course few days back and had asked my query there. 🙂
    Now,I have started with Futures course.
    I have one basic question.I have tried to explain.

    In spot market, we actually trade the shares which are initially sold by company through IPO.
    What do we trade in Futures market ?
    The 1 Lot of shares , where do they come from ?

    Could you please explain or share some resource where I can get to know about it.
    Thanks in advance.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Future is a contract wrapped around the underlying. Contracts get created at the start of the series and expires on the expiry day. The price is derived from the underlying market.

  258. Ranjith says:

    Does that mean, at the start of series a fixed number of contracts are created which are traded until the expiry date ?

  259. Ranjith says:

    Thanks Karthik 🙂

  260. GANESH says:

    If the buyer of the futures transfers the futures to other person before the expiry day ,he will be paying the difference amount of price of futures on agreement day and price of futures on transfer day to buyer(initial owner of the futures).??

  261. Naveen says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I have a query related to F&O.

    Assume, A buys F or O contract from B and makes profit. A exits from contract by selling F or O to C.

    1. From this point, all the transactions are carried out between B & C?
    2. Assume, due to loss B wishes to exit. How can B exit? What happens to contract? does it cease to exit? or will have someone, say B & D?

  262. Naveen says:

    Karthik, I’m unable to understand how B can exit to D? (A sold whatever he had bought and exited) but what does B do to exit? will B buy from E to square off? if so, who bears further loss in the contract? I don’t think it’ll be E as E could be someone who is selling after making profit like A. So does that mean C will now be mapped to F who was contract seller to E initially who is still active or someone similar in the chain?

    I’m more fond to know how B exits and how cycle further continues (who will be that new seller in place bearing loss)?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      It is basically one trader closes the trade and settles with another, who then takes on a position and continues.

  263. Ranjit says:

    Hi Karthik,

    If I buy 1 lot of a futures contract of current month and choose to carry forward till expiry…..what if there is no buyer when I try to square off my position? What happens to the lot on expiry day?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You need not have to worry about that, if you let it expire, then the exchanges will ensure it settles your contract with the counterparty. Problem is when you want to sell before expiry and there are no counterparties, then you will get stuck.

  264. Ranjit says:

    Hi Karthik,

    If I don’t square off my position in equity Futures before expiry then it will go for physical settlement.

    1.But what happens in case of NIFTY Fut or BankNifty Fut?
    2.Is this same for Options as well?

  265. hem says:

    hello kartik
    i have my doubt in this paragraph–page24 last para of 3.2
    Here is a critical question – What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well,
    it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an
    agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at
    Rs.2374.9/- per share. This futures agreement between me and the counterparty expires on 24th
    Dec 2014.

    here on expiry will you buy the lot or sell. because further in chapter in scenario 1and 2 you are buying shares at 2374.9.
    . But in above shown paragraph you have written that your counterparty is agreeing to buy 125 tcs share from you(me) on 24 dec 14.

    please clarify. thanks

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I’m not sure if I understand your query completely, but you can either be a buyer or a seller of a contract.

  266. hem says:

    Kartik sir i have given you the paragraph from this module 4 chapter 3 (the future trade) of future trading. Again i am pasting this paragraph from page no 24 for your reference.

    Here is a critical question – What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well,
    it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an
    agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at
    Rs.2374.9/- per share. This futures agreement between me and the counterparty expires on 24th
    Dec 2014.

    Scenario 1 – TCS stock price goes up by 24th Dec
    This is a case where my directional view on TCS shares has come true, therefore I stand to benefit.
    Assume on 24th Dec 2014, the stock price of TCS has gone up from Rs.2374.9/- to Rs.2450/- per
    share, by virtue of the increase in spot price, the futures price would also increase. This means as
    per the agreement, I am entitled to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share which is a much
    lower price compared to what is available in the market. My profit will be Rs.75.1/- per share
    (Rs.2450 – Rs.2374.9). Since the deal is for 125 shares, my overall profit will be Rs.9387.5/-
    (Rs.75.1/- * 125).
    The seller obviously incurs a loss, as he is forced to sell TCS shares at Rs.2374.9 per share as opposed to selling it in the open market at a much higher price of Rs.2450/- per share. Clearly, the
    buyer’s gain is the seller loss.
    Scenario 2 – TCS stock price goes down by 24th Dec
    This is a case where my directional view on TCS shares has gone wrong, therefore I would stand
    to lose.
    Assume on 24th Dec 2014, the stock price of TCS goes down from Rs.2374.9/- to Rs.2300/- per
    share, by virtue of this decrease the futures price will also be around the same level. This means
    as per the agreement, I am obligated to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share which is a
    much higher price compared to what is available in the market. My loss will be Rs.75./- per share
    (Rs.2374.9 – Rs.2300). Since the deal is for 125 shares my overall loss will be Rs.9375/- (Rs.75/- *
    I would obviously incur a loss as I’m forced to buy the TCS shares at Rs.2374.9/- per share as opposed to buying it in the open market at a much lower price of Rs.2300/- per share. Clearly, the
    sellers gain is the buyer’s loss.

    Now my query is in this para you have written that you own 1 lot of TCS future contract it means on 24 Dec 14 your counterparty will buy 125 shares from you at 2374.9/ per share. But furthur in scenario 1 and 2 you have written that you will buy 125 shares from counterparty at 2374.9/ per share.

    Please clarify.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Its like this – if you are a buyer now, then to close the position at a later point you need to sell. Likewise, if you are a seller now, then to close the position at a later point you will have to buy.

      Hope that clarifies.

  267. B K N SYAMALARAO says:


    I sold two lots of nifty fut jun today. Could somebody pleasse help me, will it be carried forward for next day or not.


  268. Vaishakh says:

    I have a doubt, If you buy 1 lot(125 shares) of TCS future. Will that 125 shares be counted under volume in spot market ?

  269. Ashish Thakur says:

    Hello Karthik,

    This part confused me bit.

    “Here is a critical question – What does it mean by “I now own 1 lot of TCS Futures Contract”? Well, it simply means by purchasing TCS futures on 15th Dec 2014, I have digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty agreeing to buy 125 TCS shares from me (counterparty) at Rs.2374.9/- per share. This futures agreement between me and the counterparty expires on 24th Dec 2014.”

    What I understood from the examples is buying a future contract means right to buy the underlying asset at that price ( price at the time of entering into contract ) expiry. As per my understanding the above paragraph states otherwise.

    Is Buyer of the future contract is obligated to sell underlying asset at the expiry?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Sort of, since there is mark to market, the price changes based on the daily settlement price.

  270. Kumar SL says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Gone thru these chain of communication and appreciate your patience to answer repeatedly.
    I am just interested in Futures Trading and understand the basic details form your tutorial.

    However i have couple of queries here,

    1. Can I place number of future trading with the same multiple times!
    2. I can find near / next / far month Future stocks to purchase. Why so and what is the reason?

    Ex: Can I buy August stock now and sell by tomorrow itself if i get the increase?
    In the Future LOT price is same for all the 3 months LOTs or it vary according to the month (Like July Lot, Aug lot and Sep LOT).

    Kindly clarify in detailed.

    Kumar SL

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, you can place any number of trades, not an issue. You just need to ensure you have sufficient margins
      2) Yes, the reason is that these contracts are available 🙂

      Yes, you can buy Aug and sell it anytime before Aug expiry. Yes, lot sizes are uniform.

  271. Shivani says:


    I have bought next month’s future and I want to know what happens when the next month becomes the near month.

    Thanks in advance

  272. Kumar SL says:

    Thanks Karthik.

    Few more doubts here.

    If I buy future lots June, July, Aug each 1 at X, Y, Z prices today.

    Scenario 1: Can I sell Aug LOT by tomorrow itself if the price increases !
    Scenario 2: Irrespective of months (June, July and August) though the Buying price is different, selling price remains same !
    Ex: Next week HDFC Bank price is 1050 and can I sell August LOT with this price, means is this applicable across all the future stocks I purchased or any difference!

    Kindly clarify.

    Kumar SL

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, you can sell t’row itself. The prices across all three months will be different, check the chapter on Futures pricing.

  273. Shivani S says:

    Yes, I want to know if the lot size changes? Currently, the near month lot is 375 suppose and I have bought the next month’s 550 lot. So what will happen when next month becomes current month.

    I also want to confirm that I do not have to worry about the expiry of next month’s future this month right?

  274. Srini says:

    Hi Am new to options

    I purchased 1 lot of Nifty 10300 June options at a premium of 141.
    Right now the nifty is at 10240 and the premium is 103.

    My question is 1. if nifty touches 10300 , is it possible that the premium does not touch 141?
    If 10300 call target is met do I still lose money since the premium may not increase to higher level

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, it is possible but depends on when it will hit 10,300. No, it is unlikely that you will lose money if the call option hits 10300.

  275. Riyansh Mukeshkumar Mehta says:

    In futures if the contracts are not sqaured then at what price will the remaining be squared ?

  276. Akash says:

    Hi Karthik,

    I was under the impression that as the future nears the expiry date, it’s price moves closer to the actual market price (spot price) on that day. Similar concept as time decay. Turns out that is not the case.

    Question: On the expiry date, why would a stock’s future have a different price vs the actual market price? There is no time left for uncertainty .


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The convergence happens at the expiry, Akash. Also, if you notice, the difference is very minimal as we approach expiry.

  277. rajat pahuja says:

    hello sir
    sir there are always 3 expiry dates to choose from for the futures. what are the relevance for 3 expiry dates.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      These are three different expiries. These are current, mid, and far month contracts. Have explained this in the module.

  278. Hari bhaskar says:

    I wish know whether we can set up Zerodha streak to buy and sell Nifty future contracts… if possible what will be the margin required for MIS position (ie) Intraday closing …as of today to trade 1 lot with stop loss and target. thank you…

  279. Tim says:

    In the example provided about ‘closing’ the position for a profit, how exactly does this happen. You went long the future at a strike price lower than the current strike price (hence your profit), so when you are offloading your contract you are offloading the lower strike future, but the person ‘buying’ the contract is buying it at the current market price (or current future price agreement). So who is paying for your profit?

    This is also a main confusion for me as the future price quote only quotes 1 price, but there are many contracts that were created at different prices in the past. What about those contracts?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Tim, I think you’ve mixed up concepts of both futures and options. There are no strike prices in futures.

  280. Sarthak Singhal says:

    Sir, does the futures contract expires on last Friday of the month or the day before that i.e. on Thursday? All the contracts have the date Of last Thursday of that month.
    Should I square off my contract on Thursday or can I continue holding it till Friday too?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, all contracts expire on last Thursday. After expiry, they cease to exist hence cannot be held.

  281. Rohan says:

    Hi, how is the intraday margin calculated for futures. Say I wish to trade intraday on BankNifty Aug20 futures. How much margin would I need?

  282. Aniruddha says:

    Sir, I did not understand your statement when you say that after purchasing 1 TCS Futures contract, you digitally entered into an agreement with a certain counterparty who has to buy the shares from you at 2374.9. What are you exactly doing here ? Are you buying the shares or selling them ?Because in a normal situation, an investor would buy shares on 15th and sell them at 24th, but you say that you are buying the shares at 2374.9 at 24th. Please clarify my confusion.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Its like paying a token advance before you purchase a land or apartment. So you pay a small amount and enter a deal right? Same way in futures also.

  283. Pardeep Rawat says:

    Hi Karthik,

    Thanks for sharing such a good knowledge free!!

    I have one query – There is margin money needed before entering into the future agreement which I think is done to take money from the loosing party to the gaining party. But how is this margin money calculated. I know it’s a certain % of the contract value but can’t the loss of any trader be higher than the margin money? Please advise.

  284. Pardeep Rawat says:

    Thanks Karthik for such a quick reply!!

    but is it possible that the incurred loss could be higher than margin money?


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, happened in Crude oil episode early this year. However, in most cases, the systems are built in such a way that your position would be cut before you can bleed more than the margins.

  285. Sujith T V says:

    Dear Sir

    Can I buy multiple future stock one after other in a day itself with normal position.

    Kindly advise me sir

  286. Alb says:

    On 16th Dec, will there be a case when no counterparty is found?

  287. Rabindra says:

    hi karthik,
    Thanks so much for such masterful articles. One question: What exactly happens at expiry in futures trading? If i wanted to hold a long futures contract on a stock till expiry and i wanted to take physical delivery of the stock at expiry by closing the contract, would it be possible. Will those stocks be added to my demat account?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If you hold the stock futures to expiry, then yes, you are entitled for physical delivery and get possession of the stock to your demat account.

  288. Sudarshan says:

    What If I want to square off my position in the middle by transferring the agreement to someone else i.e”my existing buy position will simply be transferred to someone else” and there is no counterparty to be transferred.

  289. Ananya Chandra says:

    My Answers-
    1- I believe your P&L per share would be Rs. 144.35 [2519.25 – 2374.9 = 144.35] and on overall basis it’ll be Rs. 18,043.75 [144.75 * 125 = 18,043.75] If you had held the position till 23rd Dec 2015.
    2- Party who acquired your future contract 16th December will be having a P&L of Rs. 59.25/share [2519.25 – 2460.00 = 59.25] and an overall P&L of Rs. 7,406.25 [59.25 * 125 = 7,406.25] had he/she held the position till 23rd Dec 2015.

    Do let me know if my answers are correct.
    Also, I’d like the point out/confirm where you have mentioned “The following things happen when I opt to square off the TCS position –” Point 5 says “The profit or loss made on the transaction will be credited or debited to my trading account the same evening itself” According to the new rules laid out by SEBI (from 1st September 2020) the profits from F&O Trades are available only after the trade is settled by the exchange that is on T+1 Day in case of F&O trade. So this new rule will apply here, right?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The P&L is correct, and you are also right on the T+1 settlement. In fact, it was always T+1, its just that brokers were giving the credits for unrealized profits, which will stop going forward. I will update this as well.

  290. Amit Kumar mishra says:

    Dear sir,
    How much stock can gap up or gap down during carrying overnight position? And what if it hits circuit limit then how can we exit the trade?

  291. Amit Kumar Mishra says:

    I understand but what if a person buy future @100rs and in next morning suddenly stock gap down @80 rs is this possible in fno stocks or nifty 50 stocks?5)

  292. Amit Kumar Mishra says:

    I want to if I were open the tha such type of trade and this happens what can we do because at this time losses were too high. So that’s why I want to know this can happen or not

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      In such a case, if you have the margin, then you can continue to hold the position, else the broker will cut the position.

  293. n ramakrishnan says:

    Dear Sir
    Thanks for making the topic interesting. Please clarify the following.
    I have initiated a September 2020 future sell on hindalco (lot size 4300) at 175.80 on 9 september 2020 with a target of 168 and stop loss of 178. If the target is achieved, i will activate ‘squa