12.1 – Events

Trading or investing based on just company-specific information may not be sufficient. Outside events, both economic and/or non-economic, impact stocks and the market’s performance in general. It is also important to understand the events that influence the markets.

In this chapter, we will try to understand some common events and how the stock market reacts to these events.

12.2 – Monetary Policy

The monetary policy is a tool through which the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) controls the money supply by controlling the interest rates. RBI is India’s central bank. Likewise, every country’s central bank is responsible for setting interest rates. For example, the European Central Bank in Europe and Federal Reserves in the US. Central Banks tweak the interest rates to control the money supply in the mainstream economy.

While setting the interest rates, the RBI has to strike a balance between growth and inflation. In a nutshell – if the interest rates are high, the borrowing rates are high (particularly for corporations). If corporate can’t borrow easily, they cannot grow. If corporations don’t grow, the economy slows down.

On the other hand, borrowing becomes easier when the interest rates are low. This translates to more money in the hands of corporations and consumers. With more money, there is increased spending which means the sellers tend to increase the prices of goods and services, leading to inflation.

I’d encourage you to watch this YouTube video where I’ve tried to explain what causes inflation and the means through which RBI controls inflation.

To strike a balance, the RBI has to consider all economic factors and carefully set the key rates. Any imbalance in these rates can lead to economic chaos. The key RBI rates that you need to track are as follows:

Repo Rate – Banks can borrow from the RBI. The rate at which RBI lends money to other banks is called the Repo Rate. If the repo rate is high, the cost of borrowing is high, leading to slow economic growth. You can check the latest repo rate (And other rates, too) on RBI’s website. Markets don’t like the RBI increasing the repo rates because it slows down economic growth.

Reverse repo rate – Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which RBI borrows money from banks. Or in other words, Reverse Repo is the deposit rate RBI offers to other banks when the banks park funds with RBI. When banks deposit money to RBI, they are certain that RBI will not default, so the rate RBI offers is relatively low. However, the banking system’s money supply reduces when banks deposit money with RBI (at a lower rate) instead of the corporate entity. An increase in the reverse repo rate is not great for the economy as it tightens the money supply. Sometimes via the central bank’s policy, the central bank mandates higher deposits by banks; again, this is a way to curtail excess money supply in the mainstream economy.

Cash reserve ratio (CRR) – Every bank must maintain funds with RBI. The amount that they maintain is dependent on the CRR. If CRR increases, more money is sucked out of the mainstream economy, which is not good for the economy.

The monetary policy committee members meet regularly to review the economic situation and decide upon these key rates; hence keeping track of the monetary policy event is a must for any active trader. The first to react to rate decisions would be interest-rate sensitive stocks across various sectors such as – banks, automobiles, housing finance, real estate, metals, etc.

12.3 – Inflation

Inflation is a sustained increase in the general prices of goods and services. Increasing inflation erodes the purchasing power of money. All things being equal, if the cost of 1 KG of onion has increased from Rs.15 to Rs.20, this price increase is attributed to inflation. Inflation is inevitable, but a high inflation rate is not desirable as it could lead to economic uneasiness. A high level of inflation tends to send a bad signal to markets. Both the Government and RBI work towards reducing inflation to a manageable level. Inflation is generally measured using an index. If the inflation index increases by certain percentage points, it indicates rising inflation. Likewise, an index falling indicates inflation cooling off.

There are two inflation indices – The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) and Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Wholesale Price Index (WPI) – The WPI indicates the movement in prices at the wholesale level. It captures the price change when goods are bought and sold wholesale. WPI is an easy and convenient method to calculate inflation. The inflation measured here is at an institutional level and does not necessarily capture the consumer’s inflation.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)– The CPI, on the other hand, captures the effect of the change in prices at a retail level. As a consumer, CPI inflation is what matters. The calculation of CPI is quite detailed as it involves classifying consumption into various categories and subcategories across urban and rural regions. Each of these categories is made into an index, the final CPI index is a composition of several internal indices. The CPI captures the effect of inflation on daily household consumables like fruits, vegetables, cereals, and even fuels like petrol and diesel.

The computation of CPI is quite rigorous and detailed. It is one of the most critical metrics for studying the economy.  A national statistical agency, the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI), publishes the CPI numbers around the 2nd week of every month. The RBI’s challenge is to strike a balance between inflation and interest rates. Usually, a low-interest rate tends to increase inflation, and a high-interest rate tends to arrest inflation.

12.4 – Index of Industrial Production (IIP)

The Index of Industrial Production (IIP)  is a short-term indicator of the country’s industrial sector’s progress. The data is released every month (along with inflation data) by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI). As the name suggests, the IIP measures the Indian industrial sectors’ production, keeping a fixed reference point. As of today, India uses the reference point of 2004-05. The reference point is also called the base year.

Roughly about 15 different industries submit their production data to the ministry, which collates the data and releases it as an index number. If the IIP increases, it indicates a vibrant industrial environment (as the production is going up) and hence a positive sign for the economy and markets. A decreasing IIP indicates a sluggish production environment, hence a negative sign for the economy and markets.

To sum up, an upswing in industrial production is good for the economy, and a downswing rings an alarm. As India is getting more industrialized, the relative importance of the Index of Industrial Production is increasing.

A lower IIP number puts pressure on the RBI to lower the interest rates and aid industrial credit with cheaper credit.

12.5 – Purchasing Managers Index (PMI)

The Purchasing managers’ index (PMI) is an economic indicator that tries to capture business activity across the country’s manufacturing and service sectors. This is a survey-based indicator where the respondents – usually the purchasing managers- indicate their business perception change concerning the previous month. A separate survey is conducted for the service and manufacturing sectors. The data from the survey are consolidated on a single index. Typical areas covered in the survey include new orders, output, business expectations, and employment.

The PMI number usually oscillates around 50. A reading above 50 indicates expansion, and below 50 indicates a contraction in the economy. And reading at 50 indicates no change in the economy.

12.6 – Budget

A Budget is an event during which the Ministry of Finance discusses the country’s finance in detail. The Finance Minister, on behalf of the ministry, makes a budget presentation to the entire country. During the budget, major policy announcements and economic reforms are announced, which impacts various industries across the markets. Therefore the budget plays a vital role in the economy.

To illustrate this further, in one of the recent budgets, the expectation was to increase the duties on a cigarette. As expected, during the budget, the Finance Minister raised the duties on a cigarette, so the prices increased. An increased cigarette price has a few implications:

    1. Increased cigarette prices discourage smokers from buying cigarettes (needless to say, this is debatable), and hence the profitability of the cigarette manufacturing companies such as ITC decreases. If the profitability decreases, investors may want to sell shares of ITC.
    2. If market participants start selling ITC, the markets will come down because ITC is an index heavyweight.

In reaction to the budget announcement, ITC traded 3.5% lower for this precise reason.

A budget is an annual event, and it is announced during the last week of February. However, the budget announcement could be delayed under certain special circumstances, such as a new government formation.

12.7 – Corporate Earnings Announcement

Corporate earning season is perhaps one of the important events to which the stocks react. The listed companies (trading on the stock exchange) must declare their earnings once every quarter, also called the quarterly earnings numbers. During an earnings announcement, the corporate gives out details on various operational activities, including:

    1. Revenue growth
    2. Expense trend
    3. Finance charges
    4. Profitability trends
    5. Project updates
    6. Key trends in the industry

Besides, some companies give an overview of what to expect from the upcoming quarters. This forecast is called ‘corporate guidance.’

Invariably every quarter, the first blue-chip company to make the quarterly announcement is Infosys Limited. They also give out guidance regularly. Market participants follow what Infosys has to say regarding guidance as it impacts the markets.

The table below gives you an overview of the earning season in India:

Sl No Months Quarter Result Announcement
01 April to June Quarter 1 (Q1) 1st week of July
02 July to September Quarter 2 (Q2) 1st week of Oct
03 October to December Quarter 3 (Q3) 1st Week of Jan
04 January to March Quarter 4 (Q4) 1st Week of April

Do note that the 1st of April in India marks the beginning of the financial year. In the US, the financial year starts on 1st Jan, so the first quarter starts from January through March, and so forth.

Every quarter when the company declares its earnings, the market participants match the earnings with their expectations of how much the company should have earned. The market participant’s expectation is called the ‘street expectation.’

The stock price will react positively if the company’s earnings are better than the street expectations. The stock price will react negatively if the actual numbers are lower than the street expectation.

If the street expectation and actual numbers match, the stock price tends to trade flat with a negative bias more often than not. This is mainly because the company could not give any positive surprises.

12.8 – Non Financial events

Apart from the events we discussed above, it would be best to watch out for other non-financial events to understand their impact on markets. For example, the Covid crisis of 2020 had a significant effect on economies around the world, disrupting the world economic order. The supply chain took a hit across the globe leading to an inflation spike. That said, there were select pockets of the economy that did very well, mainly the online services industry.

Events like the Russia – Ukraine war or the tension between China and Taiwan have impacted world markets. Geo-political affairs such as these impact various connected economies. For instance, the war between Russia and Ukraine affects the supply of natural gas and crude oil, which significantly impacts the energy costs in Europe.

As an active trader or a market participant, you need to watch out for these events and understand how these events can impact the markets.

While the world economies are interconnected, isolated events (Country specific) impact the local economy. For example, the elections in India impact only the Indian economy.

So, keep an eye on these non-financial events and how they can impact the stock markets or sometimes specific industries.

Key takeaways from this chapter

  1. Markets and individual stocks react to events. Market participants should equip themselves to understand and decipher these events.
  2. Monetary policy is one of the most important economic events. During the monetary policy, review actions on a repo, reverse repo, CRR etc. are initiated.
  3. Interest rates and inflation are related. Increasing interest rates curbs inflation and vice versa
  4. Inflation data is released every month by MOSPI. As a consumer, CPI inflation data is what you need to track.
  5. IIP measures industrial production activity. An increase in IIP cheers the markets, and a lower IIP disappoints the market.
  6. PMI is a survey-based business sentiment indicator. The PMI number oscillates around 50 marks. Above 50 is good news to markets, and PMI below 50 is not.
  7. The Budget is an important market event where policy announcements and reform initiatives are taken. Markets and stocks react strongly to budget announcements.
  8. Corporate earnings are reported every quarter. Stocks react mainly due to the variance in actual number versus the street’s expectation.
  9. Keep an eye on non-financial events and how they can impact the markets.


  1. kamaleshnair says:

    1. From the close of a quarter/financial year, what are the time limits within which companies must declare the results?
    2. In case of insider trading (SAST), what is the time limit to inform the exchanges about it ?
    3. Is there any rule/law making it mandatory for companies to report events with financial significance?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Answers in the same order –

      1) If I’m not wrong companies must declare results within 30 days
      2) In order to make it a level playing field SEBI mandates the companies to disclose insider trading ‘at the earliest’, which pretty much means the company has to declare this information within the same trading day
      3) Yes companies have to declare this information.

      • VRN says:

        What is insider trading and SAST ? How it works?
        Is their any facility into Versity to get notification once get solution of query?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          You should get an email notification when this gets answered. Anyway, insider trading is basically trading on information not known to the public. For example, an employee of TCS can buy the shares of TCS based on his knowledge of the quarterly results yet to be announced.

  2. ANANT says:

    By 8% & 7% in Repo and Reverse repo rate, do you mean it is same as we borrow from banks at 11 % ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, repo & reverse repo rate are rate at which banks transact with RBI. The lending rates to us are different.

  3. Simranjeet says:

    Sir, i am not able to understand “Purchasing managers index(PMI)”

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      PMI or the Purchasing Manager’s Index is an index which measures the activity of a purchasing manager (PM) of a company. This is measured by running a survey across many PM’s across sectors and industries. If the PM is sheen to be purchasing things for the company then the perception of growth and industrial activity is created, which is good for the markets. Else its considered not so good.

  4. Simranjeet says:

    Thank you sir

  5. shinde N D says:

    Important & better for new trader

  6. Ankush Agrawal says:

    Where Can one collect data of Street Expectation ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Unfortunately street expectations are not published by anyone…or at least I’m not aware of anyone doing this.

  7. Sumeet says:

    Every bank is mandatorily required to maintain funds with RBI.
    1. What does maintaing funds with RBI really mean?
    2. How CRR plays a role in this?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      So every bank is supposed to maintain some of their deposits with RBI. For example if they have 100Crs in deposits, they maybe required to deposit lets say 10Crs with RBI.

  8. Vivek says:

    Dear karthik
    Could you please explain the anamolous behaviour of CNX Nifty and Bank Nifty w.r.t the Bank rate cuts by the RBI on 15th March and 2nd June. Ideally the above mentioned indices should have zoomed up but the opposite happened. Meanwhile after the rate cut on 15th January, the market rocketed as expected. I’m still unsure about this behaviour.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Well, this is because the market is forward looking, and it always factors in the news especially such as rate cuts.

      • Vivek says:

        So, going along with the speculations of a rate cut on 29th September, the market would have already discounted the same. From a 15.7 level on 7th Sep to 17.2 level on 24th Sep, one should expect the market to fall even after a rate cut on 29th Sep?
        In simple terms my query is how to know if the market has already factored the expectation or not?

        Thanks in advance

        • Vivek says:

          * Above data was for Bank NIfty Index

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Yes, my sense is that the market has factored in a rate cut…but if the rates do get slashed by anything more than 25bps, I think markets can rally.

          • Vivek says:

            1) But in the longer run the rate cut is good for Bank and industries as such. So is it profit booking which drags the CNX Nifty and Bank Nifty down after such announcement?
            2) Would it be prudent to bet on PUT options in this scenario or Straddle strategy is better here?
            3) For any of the above is CNX nifty better or Bank Nifty for options trading?
            Thanks in advance and my gratitude towards you for clarifying such doubts. You are like a messiah for me for having cleared such doubts in my mind 🙂

          • Karthik Rangappa says:

            My answers as below –

            1) Yes, the movement can be attributed to profit booking. But then do remember if RBI’s action is beyond the street’s expectation then the reaction could be far severe. For example everyone now expects a cut (if at all it happens) of about 25bps…but if RBI cuts it by 50 bps or does increases the rate (as opposed to general expectation) then the markets may react quite severely

            2) Buying Put options or call options could be a dangerous idea – suggest you read about volatility in the options chapter

            3) Nifty has a better liquidity hence my preference to trade Nifty

  9. Vivek says:

    Extension to the above questions
    4) The market dragged itself today at EOD. Does this imply anything as to if RBI does cut the rate tomorrow the markets shall improve or the downtrend shall continue as the market has already factored in the rate cut?

  10. Vivek says:

    Hi Karthik
    Market rallied yesterday coz of ECB reforms. And yesterday night news came up that China has cut the rates which led to zooming up of US markets and erasing off the losses of 2015. My questions:
    1) Did the US market shoot up as China would again be a lucrative destination for investment plus demand of US tech products would rise?
    2) How will this impact Indian market as now India would be losing on the edge it had against China? Overall sentiment of global market is good so I guess Indian market should also rally. But Noting that China is a rival leads me to think that Indian market would be bearish.

    I am basically trying to understand the dynamics of global market before I start trading.
    Also, during intraday TA of CNX Nifty I seldom find any conclusive results. e.g. lot of Marubuzos and Dojis are visible but the next candle comes out to be against what should have come based on the TA.

    And once again thanks for your time and inputs for I know no one else who could sort out these doubts of mine.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Vivek – honestly very few people with access to right information understand China. Its a difficult economy to understand. I believe the economic dynamics of India and China are very different..with India is a better position. Of course this is just my personal view.

      I would suggest you start with overnight trades (swing trades) before you get into intraday.

      • Keshav says:

        What is an overnight trade? Aren’t trades restricted to the time when markets are open?

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Its just a terminology used to convey the fact that you have on open position in the market which you are carrying forward. Example : Monday I buy Nifty futures and sell the same on Wednesday, then it means to say I carried the position overnight (for 2 nights).

  11. Sumit says:

    Where can we get these event calendar? like RBI policy announcements dates etc at one place? do zerodha have any tool for this?

  12. suresh.ks says:

    Hi, sir,
    Any other events impact on Indian stock market apart from IIp,WPI,CPI,PMI,BUDGET,CORPORATE EARNING ANNOUNCEMENT

    Is there any impact from Crude Oil price,any other currency like USD,EURO?
    and please share if there any link to get these information

  13. suresh.ks says:

    Hi, sir
    Please share if there any web link to get informations about CPI,PMI,IIP?

  14. suresh.ks says:

    How to impact on Indian stock market from other country’s economy like China,USA,Germany
    which country is more impact on our stock market and why please share with details

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Suresh – this is a macro economic view and I’m afraid this cant be explained as a comment. However in a nutshell, US is probably a very important country for us.

  15. suresh.ks says:

    Hi, sir
    any reason for declining nifty? For how long will it go down ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Decline is mainly due to the situation in Chinese markets. How low will it go? Well, your guess is as good as mine 🙂

  16. suresh.ks says:

    Hi, sir
    any official link to get informations about stocks’ result,split,bonus, right issues?

  17. Shafeeq says:

    Does Inflation keeps compounding every year or Can we treat Inflation in same terms as of Simple Interest ?

  18. Tanmay says:

    I liked how you have lucidly explained the concepts but there are no examples, as you would provide in the options module. Please include a section where some case studies are discussed around the corporate events, the more the merrier.

  19. Sai Sreedhar says:

    Why does the stock price/Index keep moving up/down while the market is closed? I have seen sometimes after 3:30PM the market still keeps moving and the closing price at 4:00PM is different (sometimes it happens until 5:30PM), or sometimes the opening price itself is higher or lesser before 9:15AM, though no trades have happened yet.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Market closes at 3:30 PM and there wont be any movements after that. At 3:45PM market is open for 10 minute window wherein you can just square off any existing positions, but at the closing prices of the day.

  20. Tanya says:

    Why is every company’s face value Rs. 10? Which one among the face value and market value is included in the accounts(financial statement) of a company?

  21. Rajiv says:

    Hi Sir, thanks for the great article. Just an observation – You have stated “The RBI meets every quarter to review the rates.”. I think now it is once every two months and not once every quarter. Please correct if I am right. Thanks.

  22. sudheer says:

    considering that during budget time the market will be very volatile,why cant the exchanges be closed for few days , so that investors can take time to digest the news after the news is cooled off and there would be no panic selling?Just a thought..

  23. Ayush says:

    How the inflation will affect stock price and investors money?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      High inflation leads to higher interested rates, which means tighter supply of money, which means businesses cannot borrow money easily, which means lesser business growth, which means stock prices will not go up, which means investors will not make enough money.

  24. Sameer Desai says:

    Hi Karthik,
    Why would RBI borrows money from other banks..?
    And it is mentioned that, when banks choose to lend money to the RBI instead of the corporate entity, the supply of money in the banking system reduces. Is it not true when the banks lend money to the corporate entities..? or is it that the RBI borrows huge amount than the corporate entities which causes reduction in the supply by other banks?
    And great initiative by Zerodha..You guys Rock..!!!!
    Thanks in advance

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      RBI itself is a bank and it deals only with other banks. So if a bank has excess funds, then it can part that with RBI and earn an interest.

  25. Harif says:

    What are the key factors to watch during Quarterly results(EBITDA etc.,). For example – Lets take Infosys, After results, How/when do we conclude whether the stock will raise or fall?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      For Infy and other IT companies look for guidance for the coming quarters along with Revenue, EBITDA, and PAT (along with its growth and margins). The stock will raise or fall based on the results.

      • Suravi says:

        Can you please explain a more about EBITDA and PAT.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          EBITDA is the operating profit of the company. It is basically Revenue – Expenses. PAT is EBITDA minus applicable taxes and other adjustments.

  26. Pratap Reddy says:

    I thank you Zerodha Team.
    I am holding 600 shares of Aurobindo Pharma as on today.
    The following is self explanatory from the company:
    “Aurobindo Pharma Ltd has informed BSE that a Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Company will be held on May 29, 2017, inter alia, to consider and approve, the Audited Financial Results of the Company for the year ended March 31, 2017 and also to consider dividend, if any, for the financial year 2016-17.

    Further to the letter dated May 12, 2017 informing the closure of Trading Window of the Company from May 18, 2017 until 48 hours from the date of declaration of the Audited Financial Results of the Company for the year ended March 31, 2017, Company inform that trading window will be closed up to May 31, 2017 and shall be re-opened on June 01, 2017.”
    Now my situation is, if I sell, there will be loss of 20% as per the present market.
    Pls advise what to do. I will be obliged.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The trading window closure is applicable only to the insiders of the company. Not applicable to regular shareholders.

      • Pratap Reddy says:

        Thank you for the prompt reply.
        They are mentioning “to consider divident”, what does it mean ?
        Regular traders do get any benefit from it ?
        Pls clarify.

        • Karthik Rangappa says:

          Dividend is cash payout from the company, this is rewarding shareholders from the profit.

  27. jyotshna says:

    What are the impacts of elections ?
    1.) India Loksabha election
    2. ) Particular states vidhan sabha election.
    3.) Election of different countries ( say USA, UK, Germany etc ).

    After election result how it moves ( I have seen different party wins election then also market reacts heavily, it’s not related to 1 party ) EX : Delhi AAP won market zoomed, Bihar Nitish Won market zoomed, Maharastra BJP won Market zoomed, Punjab congress won market zoomed.( Expectations were different and results different then also +ve reaction ) Why ? Please answer

  28. Deepak says:

    Where Is CPI inflation data available.?
    Can someone please post the link. I found 2012 data in gov. webpage –> Ministry of Statistics and Programme implementation

  29. Ashutosh tilwankar says:

    Sir you said companies issue corporate guidance…where can we find these..??

    Thank you!

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Not all companies do, but if they do, you can find that in the investor conference transcripts, which will be made available on the company’s website under the investor’s section.

  30. abhishek kumar sah says:

    1) When the stock split is announced, that day the stock chart shows a gap down. But the next day somehow the price is adjusted. how??

    2) If you look at the chat of OIL fut (date-1-12-2017) there is a big gap, due to stock split. But the chart for the same in spot market does not have any gap?

  31. abhishek kumar sah says:

    same is the case with reliance. there is a big gap in the futures chart but the spot chart does not show any gap.(date-9-6-2017)

    Also the spot price is some how adjusted.
    Please explain?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Ah, are you looking at the continuous charts? If not, click on the continuous option in the chart ‘Display’ menu.

      • abhishek kumar sah says:

        Yes i am looking at the continuous data chart for the Reliance nov fut. On (6-9-2017) the price is around Rs 1600 but on the next day(7-9-2017) the price is near Rs 800(displaying a big gap). And this(futures) chart is not adjusted.

        but the spot chart for the same date is adjusted and it shows a continuous chart.

  32. abhishek kumar sah says:

    Is there anything i should keep in our mind or anything i should be cautious about if lets say i hold a futures contract and there is a stock split announced?

  33. Vidyadhar Belvalkar says:

    how to identify whether a particular speculative announcement is already discounted or not in the price of index/stock before such announcement is made.e.g reduction in RR, RRR etc

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Usually, you can observe a rapid increase/decrease in price leading to the event/news – this is indicative of the price discounting the news.

  34. arvind says:

    Karthik Sir

    how do stock prices of fundamentally sound companies ( eg. tcs , reliance , hul etc) react during a market crash ( eg. 2008 ) ? do they crash/fall very fast too like rest of market (say for example 20 % on a single day) or correct slowly over a longer period of time ( eg. 2-3 % in a day ) ?

    what are other things that happen only during crash ?

    thanks 🙂

  35. Aashish Rana says:

    How do I check the charts of CPI,WPI. Though I checked on mospi, I can found only PDF and it is very difficult to extract information from there. And please do tell me about CRR,Repo rate,Reserve Repo rate charts too.

  36. Siddharth says:

    is there a way to know which companies have contributed via data to PMI or IIP sector index ?
    Since Indian economy has major share Unincorporated companies

  37. Mangesh Baxi says:

    Is PMI a subjective index or it is determined by quantified parameters ? If then how do they assure its accuracy & remove bias(if any)?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The nature of the index is to capture the opinion of the purchasing managers, Mangesh. So there is bound to be some amount of bias here.

  38. Rabindra says:

    Hello Kartik,
    Other economic factors that have significant impacts on any stock market would be: money supply, trade deficit, FII, crude price and gold price. Could you dwell on these topics from the indian PoV while updating this page. would love to know how exactly they affect the indian market.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      of course, these factors matter too. I’ve just tried to summaries a handful of events with maximum impact. Will try and include these events as well 🙂

  39. ganesh natarajan says:

    I could see the quarterly resume is more than estimation and less than market estimation. Where I can find the estimation/expectation ?

  40. Vivek singh says:

    Karthik sir.,i am a beginner. U have written in such a lucid and easy to grasp form unlike other contents online… Thank u so much…prior to this I don’t know even a single topic of stock market and indices… Now I am learning a lot… It’s cool…

  41. Anulekh says:

    Is Repo Rate the most important outcome of rbi monetary policy which is monitored by market

  42. Ashwani Kumar Rai says:

    How we can check
    for a stock how many times a stock split had occured in history .

  43. Sumit says:

    Sir how do I get the PMI data and what is the frequency of the report?

  44. Ashwani says:

    how many days after ex date will take to get the dividents in account (generally).

  45. Ishit says:

    Explain how increase in reverse repo rate is bad for market?
    As higher the reverse repo rate the less likely RBI is to borrow money from banks, hence leaving more for corporations?

  46. Sachin Singh says:

    Hey Karthik, tomorrow the IIP & CPI data is coming out. Can you please let me know around what time do these type of data generally get announced? And are they announced at the NSE site or someplace else?

  47. Raja says:

    Dear Karthik,

    Could you please tell me a good book on Python learning for Algo Trading Or a good book on Algo Trading, or online study materials. Thanks.


  48. Raja says:

    OK..Thank You…

  49. palak says:

    Hello sir,

    I want to know that how can we know about upcoming government meetings before a week so that we can make position accordingly.
    Like total news that impact the market for the upcoming week ?

  50. Palak says:

    Thankyou 🙂

  51. Janesh says:

    Hello Karthik,
    As of Today 1 March 2020. NSE: RELIANCE price is 1,327.00 INR −59.25 (-4.27%) due to coronavirus market is down,

    A -4.27% change means a big FII player has withdrawn money(sell) from Reliance.

    Buy Sell happens when one is selling @100 & another is Buying @100.

    QW. -> who is buyer here ? Because The Big Player FII is only selling..

    P.S. We know Retail investor can not effect even 1% in market.

    Hope this questions helps everyone.:)

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Janesh, 1 retail participant cannot influence the market (whereas 1 FII can), but when large number of retail traders either buy or sell, then the price of the share does get influenced.

  52. Janesh says:

    Let me explain with an example.
    The Gitanjali Gems is wiped out due to Neerav modi case. The stock was started falling. Obeviously no one is interseted to buying here, So my question is who is buying here ?? Why stock price goes down when there is no buyer..

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      People speculate they buy with an expectation that the price will go up. Remember, the different opinions is what makes a market.

  53. Rishikesh says:

    Hello sir could you explain more to me if I buy a share of “x” company at delivery condition and sell a share of same company on same day which was in position and not in holding. Is there any think wrong in this transaction if yes then please explain in details

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, nothing wrong with it. The trade is considered as an intraday trade and hence will be charged intraday brokerage.

  54. Rishikesh says:

    Hello Karthik,

    Thanks for the clarification. As the article mentions, it says there are risks involved in BTST. Will you please tell me what risks involved and how BTST trade will be charged?

  55. Umesh Rajawat says:

    Hello Karthik

    In presenting IIP (Index of Industrial Production) does MNC’s (foreign companies) established in india are they included in IIP??
    Thanks .

  56. ishan says:

    why would rbi borrow money from banks and also how will it benefit banks to lend money to rbi instead to a corporate entity?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      RBI does not borrow, it mandates bank to park money. This is how it regulates the money supply in the economy.

  57. Asif says:

    Sir can u give a easy example for PMI??

  58. Sadvik gowda says:

    Sir, 1) Among all of above points which one impact more strongly over market ?
    2) where to check these news in advance ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) They all have different importance Sadvik. Hard to isolate events.
      2) News portals, that is the only portal for all of us.

  59. RAKESH says:

    low-interest rate tends to increase inflation and a high-interest rate tends to arrest inflation.
    Need a Clarification in the Above Statement

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The low-interest-rate increases the supply of money, hence easy access to money driving the costs higher. This leads to inflation.

  60. Tanay Agarwal says:

    I spend more time reading the comments when compared to the content. As all my doubts are answered by you here. The comments section is so extensive and INFORMATIVE!!!! cheers to you Karthik!

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, overtime the comment section has turned out to be gold with tons of information! Happy reading!

  61. Saravana Ub says:


    I am back testing a trend following system from 2008 sir. Only in Nifty. By buying options.

    I am planning to square off before RBI day and and take trade after the RBI announcement.

    Should I take any other into consideration as well sir? I’m asking for only trading nifty.

  62. Shashank Pendyala says:

    1. I understand banks can borrow money from RBI and repo rate is applicable, but apart from banks any other entity can borrow from RBI?
    2. Same as above, apart from banks can any other entity lend money to RBI and get the reverse repo rate interest out of it?
    3. Out of curiosity, does RBI have money all the time? or they get it when needed via creating money / bonds?
    4. Regarding CPI, it is the change taking previous month as the baseline? or has a fixed baseline like IIP. If the change is based on previous month value then always the inflation is increasing right, whenever I see news it is always a positive change never negative. That means currency value is decreasing?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Banks and the Govt can borrow from RBI
      2) When you buy GSEC bonds, you essentially lend to RBI
      3) Yes for both 🙂
      4) I’m not sure about this, need to read up on CPI guideline again 🙂

  63. roopam says:

    thank you sir for this great knowledge. Love you 3000 sir ji
    sir regarding this article I have certain queries-
    1- why is IIP for a particular month updated 6 weeks later by MOSPI ?
    2- Where do we and how do we check PMI?
    I did some research and came across ihsmarkit but I couldn’t get the knowledge of PMI over there
    thank you😊

  64. Ajay says:

    “Wholesale Price Index (WPI) – The WPI indicates the movement in prices at the wholesale level. It captures the price increase or decreases when they are sold between organizations as opposed to actual consumers.”
    What is ‘they’ in above sentence ?

  65. SANJAY MEHTA says:

    Sir is there a free site from where we could find ‘street expectation’. for a Company/ Stock?



  66. kushang solanki says:

    where can we find all this information of a prticular stock in NSE?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If there is any corporate event, then that will show up as ‘Event’ next to the scrip name in Kite.

  67. Sai Sruthi says:

    Hi Sir,
    u have mentioned that higher the reverse repo rate lowers the cash flow in the system
    but why would RBI borrow money if the rates are high?
    and if they dont borrow money (due to high r-r rates) doesn’t it mean there’s more money available for the rest of us and eventually corporates and the general public could use it for development right ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The interest rate is a function of how the economy performs right? RBI cannot change the rates without any underlying reasoning.

  68. Sai Sruthi says:

    I’m saying/asking that reverse repo and the devp of the company/market are inversely proportionate
    please comment
    Thanks a ton for the effort and time you’ve spent to deliver these phenomenal modules

  69. Manoj says:

    Where can I track these Indexes or register for the announcements?

  70. Rana Ghosh says:

    There have been instances where the stock price decrease heavily when the quarterly results of a particular company is announced and the company has performed quite good. Is it the reverse psychology where the retail investors wants to buy but the big players sell off their shares?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Current results could be good, but it also depends on future guidance from the management. After all, stock markets are forward-looking.

  71. Prasoon Dimri says:

    Very well predicted the ITC share future. 6 years have passed by and ITC is trading at its lowest all thanks to the increased taxes & duties on cigarettes


    In today’s scenario, the lending rate decreasing, purchasing power decreasing, but Inflation increasing. Why? Kindly explain.

  73. Nasir ahemmad khan says:

    Sir thanks,you give us so many data and knowledge, thanks for your help and advice,sir I want to know a secure income from options trading , will you advice me, thanks again for your help

  74. Anukul Rawat says:

    at current repo rate has come down to 4

  75. Debarchan says:

    In your example you mentioned that repo rate is 8% and reverse repo rate is 7%. Then why banks will give loan to RBI ?

  76. Saksham says:

    Sir this is how you defined CRR
    “Cash reserve ratio (CRR) – Every bank is mandatorily required to maintain funds with RBI. The amount that they maintain is dependent on the CRR. ”
    Then you said this
    “If CRR increases, then more money is removed from the system, which is not good for the economy.”
    But i have confusion if CRR increases doesn’t that mean more funds are maintained with the RBI, then how is that bad for the economy??

  77. kanakeswaran says:

    Can somebody please say, How to track live government decisions that affect market movements.
    Which website to look into?

  78. Samrath says:

    Sir , please recommend me a book for amateur long term investors to understand how to get 20 percent or more cagr in the next 20 to 40 years

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      20% is quite a bit, the only thing that will help you is consistent practice and sticking to basics.

  79. Priyanka Jadhav says:


  80. prasanth says:


  81. Srijesh says:

    Hello Sir,

    How does one identify the street expectations for results?

  82. Khaim says:

    Hello Sir,

    What about world events that affect us?

    Could you speak about them also?

  83. Khaim says:

    Like US fed events (similar to our RBI events), what other ones ?

  84. investing wolf says:

    Repo rate is approx 4% ………..then why 8% is mentioned?

  85. Abhigya Kushwah says:

    Dear Karthik,
    Here, I have two queries:
    1. How do we know what is the street expectation? OR What is the method of calculation of street calculation?
    2. In every quarter, after Q1, the data of previous quarter is also included or is independent of it? I mean, when the Company publishes the Q2 results, then does is include the data of Q1 also or is only for Q2 separately? Same query for Q3 and Q4.
    3. Is Q4 and Annual Report the same? In other words, is the Q4 report published as a Annual Report?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) You keep track of news, you will know what the street is expecting
      2) Companies usually do for comparison purpose
      3) It will be separate, but in most cases released at the same time.

  86. Don Joseph says:

    Good work Karthik!
    I completed the first 4 modules on Varsity (app)…

    I know, I still have miles to walk before I can sleep!
    Hope I can meet you in person one day just to give you a handshake


    What will impact on share price after increase in dearness allowance of employees

  88. Vaibhav Shelar says:

    Which economic data release affect the particular sector of stock market? How can we interpret this economic data?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Different sectors have different data points that matter. But in general, things like interest rate policy will have an impact on all the sectors.

  89. Pratika Chordiya says:

    I am so impressed with the entire content of the chapters i have read till now.
    I wish i had known earlier 🙂
    Thanks Karthik for the amazing lessons!

  90. Sada says:

    Namaste Karthik

    Thanks for sharing your tremendous knowledge with all of us.

    The way you explain is very simple and easy to understand and helps people with non finance backgrounds like us.


    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Namaste, Sada. Thanks for the kind words, hope you continue to enjoy learning on Varsity 🙂

  91. Zega says:

    If reverse repo rate is increased, then the amount of money that rbi will borrow will decrease. Thus more money remains in liquid/market.
    Why is it written then, “An increase in reverse repo rate is not great for the economy as it tightens the supply of money.”

  92. Chetan Ghorpade says:

    Hi sir
    I am very glad to say thanks for this learning instrument which made me to know and understand the stock Market very well.
    1)where we can get the street expectations of quarterly results?
    2) Is there any particular site or link is available?
    3)where we can get the News related to stock Market?? Whenever I get the News I have been a way far late for news (like getting the train ticket after the departure of missed train)??

    So please help me sir ☺️🙏…

  93. Ashwin R S says:

    What is the Current Repo Rate charged by the RBI ?

  94. Barath says:

    For instance, a company’s quarter results are expected to be negative than previous one… The promoter obviously knows about his company has made a huge losses in revenue, so he decides to sell his few shares in CMP (profit booking) before the company announces its results… Can this happen, and is it fair ??

  95. sakthi vel says:

    nice explaination sir

  96. Sujit says:

    With increased spending how will the price of a commodity go up ie how will it lead to inflation with increased spending

  97. Sujit says:

    Thank you karthik

  98. Gautam Bhatti says:

    How do you calculate street expectation ? Is there any index or how else do you know about it.

    P.S. Thank you for all this knowledge

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      For street expectations, you generally have to follow the stock and the news around it. You will get a sense of what the street expects.

  99. Utkarsh Sharma says:

    I am loving this. Thanks!

  100. Rohan Sharma says:

    Hlo sir ye hindi m translate mil skti hai?

  101. Pushkar Khare says:

    I’m not from finance background and don’t know much about Stock market but I usually make money looking at historical trend (0-3 years) and investing in good brands in equity market.

    What can cause loss to me, which has never been so far though.

  102. Surya says:

    Sir, I am using the Zerodha Varsity app for studying these concepts. I have one query though the certificate which I get after giving the quiz can I add the same to me Linkedin profile and where do I find the credential id for the same??

  103. Surya says:

    Sir any update on the matter.

  104. Vikas says:

    Nifty and banknifty moves in same direction

  105. RK Nivethan says:

    Sir, it would be great if you can update the RATES given above since it is quite old, is it possible to fix it sir?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      The idea is to get an idea about how to go about these events and get an idea. Not really to keep track of the latest rates 🙂

  106. Monica says:

    Which are the important days we would look at for high market fluctuations
    like Bank nifty – all Thursdays
    last Thursday of the month for F&O
    could you provide me a list

  107. Dhananjay says:

    How much importance should we give to FED announcements?

    and one more thing, yesterday, FED raised interest rates by 25 bps but still markets are reacting positive to that. How will you justify this?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Its generally important. But most of these hikes are factored in all the time, unless it all of a sudden without anyone expecting, which is unlikely these days 🙂

  108. Dhananjay says:

    It means they also have told that they are going to increase rates in coming meetings as well. This is already known information. As long as everything remains same without sudden surprises market will react just normally in future as well?

  109. Sridhar Chandramouli says:


    In the United States, labour and employment figures are also collected, I read somewhere. Is there a similar system in india?

  110. Gopal says:

    A lower IIP number puts pressure on the RBI to lower the interest rates!!
    Plz explain this.
    And if IIP increase IS GOOD FOR ECONOMY ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      If IIP is low, that means industrial activity is low. One way to boost the economy (industrial activity) is by lowering the interest rate and increasing the supply of money in the economy.

  111. Radhakrishnan says:

    Zerodha Can add notification/ kind of alert for every event before it happens .. so we can close or reduce our position size

  112. Dwipayan Halder says:

    Hello sir
    Can a company increase its face value? Suppose from 5 rupees to 10 rupees.

  113. pankaj prajapati says:

    Dear Karthik Rangappa sir
    i just want to tell you that if a company announces its quarterly result let us take infosys as an example i am of the point of view that the news which may be positive or negative aren’t we the last one who is receiving that news and is it possible that the movement is already happened in the market.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yeah, news by the time it gets to you will be delayed. But if you are interested, you can develop financial models to predict the results and develop your assessment of results.

  114. bhuvan says:

    Hello sir,
    1. Sir, whenever people refers to interest rates prevailing in the country, so are they talking about repo rate?
    2. When RBI increases the repo rate, does it have any impact on the interest rates that we receive on our fixed deposits?
    3. may I know who set’s the reverse repo rate, RBI or banks?
    Thank you and have a good day sir.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      1) Yes, the repo rates set by RBI or the central bank of the country
      2) Eventually it does get passed on to FD rates
      3) Its Reserve Bank of India (India) and the Federal Bank in US

  115. Jyotiprasad Kumbhar says:

    Karthik Sir, where could we find the “Street expectation” figures to match up with the actual company earnings

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      You can look up any company’s analyst reports for street expectation. Independent research firms and a few broking houses publish these reports.

  116. Saurabh Singh says:

    Hey Karthik, absolutely fantastic experience learning it so far just because you made it so simple
    I got a doubt, when the index increase then the inflation also increase and vice versa
    Index indicates that the market is performing well but the inflation also tends to increase
    So my question is how we gonna decide the the economy is booming ?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thanks, Saurabh. When you look at the economy, there are several moving parts to it. Add to this, the market perception, then the entire thing takes a funny turn. So inflation maybe up, which is bad for the economy. RBI may increase the rates too…but if the market participants already factor this, then markets look beyond inflation and continue to move up 🙂

  117. Saurabh Singh says:

    ok, so the participants are putting more emphasis on the market rather than on inflation.

  118. Hardik Lakhanpal says:

    Sir one more important tool of monetary policy is the statutory liquidity ratio(SLR) where banks are required to maintain a certain percentage of deposits with themselves. When SLR increases the supply of money too is tightened in the economy.

  119. Pavani says:

    Apart from all the mentioned above ,how on the earth does fed meetings with effect indian markets??

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Fed actions affect not only the Indian market but the world markets at large. A rate hike in the US means higher yields on bills and Govt bonds, so investors prefer to invest in safer, higher-yielding assets than risky ones. So fund flows to India and other countries reduce. This is apart from all the -ve sentiments in the market.

  120. Astikar Swapnil says:

    recently, I was reading a book called”Intelligent investor”, their I, heard about RETS and TIPS, Is there any Chapter where I can explore more about this topic?

  121. Sathish says:

    I already posted a question regarding personal consumption expenditures index but couldn’t get a reply. Tried googling it but was only able to understand what it is about and nothing from its value perspective. I only want to know whether high PCE index number is good or bad for the economy. Could you help me with this query?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      I’ve never used that indicator myself, Sathish. Need to figure out myself before I share an opinion.

  122. Chaitanya says:

    Dear Sir, I am assuming that correction is needed in the below-mentioned sentence in this chapter.

    Current Sentence:
    `In a nutshell – if the interest rates are high, the borrowing rates are high`

    Expected Change:
    `In a nutshell – if the interest rates are high, the borrowing rates are low`

  123. Chaitanya says:

    Dear Karthik, I am proposing a small correction to a sentence in this chapter.

    Current Sentence:
    `For example, the European Central bank in Europe Federal Reserves in the US.`

    Corrected Sentence:
    1. `For example, the European Central bank in Europe, Federal Reserves in the US.`
    2. `For example, the European Central bank in Europe and Federal Reserves in the US.`

    ps: Added comma in corrected sentence 1 & added `and` in corrected sentence 2.

  124. Kishore says:

    Hi karthik , you have done an excellent job in making contents like these especially for beginners like me. I can see updates in the content like the events of ukraine war which happened very recently. But if i read this content now and then in following years this information gets updated, as a user will i get notified? Because I can see these contents are free but does not link to any of the personal account like an email of the user who consumes this. So i dont see a way of communication when an update takes place and as a user who like to stay updated misses out on such information. Just a thought 🙂

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      That may not be possible, Kishore. We keep updating as and when we spot issues, and this could even be correcting spelling 🙂

      An email notification may get very annoying. Btw, thanks for the kind words 🙂

  125. Chaitanya J says:

    Dear Karthik sir, This is a reply to our previous conversation. I am not able to reply directly to your comment. So, I have copy-pasted our previous conversation below(enclosed between 2 dotted lines)

    Chaitanya says:
    April 19, 2023 at 6:49 am
    Dear Sir, I am assuming that correction is needed in the below-mentioned sentence in this chapter.

    Current Sentence:
    `In a nutshell – if the interest rates are high, the borrowing rates are high`

    Expected Change:
    `In a nutshell – if the interest rates are high, the borrowing rates are low`

    Karthik Rangappa says:
    April 19, 2023 at 9:55 am
    The current sentence is right, dont you think so?

    New reply:- If the interest rates are high. Corporate entities wouldn’t come forward to take loans and so the borrowing rates will be low. Isn’t this correct, sir?

  126. Rahul says:

    Kartik sir,
    Why do every news channels discuss regarding the global market index like Dow Jones , Hangsang, Nasdaq, for the direction of the Indian stock market. Why Indian market also falls when the global market indices are in red?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Because all markets and economies are connected. What happens in 1 country impacts the other 🙂

  127. Jeesu Nandy says:

    Hello Sir ,

    Can you suggest me some article/blog/youtube video of how to read the CPI/IIP/PMI chart provided by MOSPI

  128. Jeesu Nandy says:

    Sir , just a off topic question

    suppose i buy 50 share of banknifty at 45400 and in 3:20 it reach 45450 after after that day the market open on 45500 , so would i make a profit of 50 points when the market closed on 45450 and in next day the market open on 45500

  129. Jeesu Nandy says:

    at 5 min chart candle who take trades after 3:15 pm , no delivery nor intraday trade happen at that time, if no one take trade how the price of the share rise or fall without buy or sell

  130. natarajan says:

    can anyone explain (CPI) in simple terms and
    How it affects the stock market?

  131. Geeta says:

    Good information mainly for freshers in this field

  132. Nimit says:

    A long term investor should actually care about market events?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Its good to keep an eye out, Nimit. If not for anything, you may also spot opportunities to make long-term investments.

  133. Aniket Baliga says:

    Please explain – “Usually, a low-interest rate tends to increase inflation, and a high-interest rate tends to arrest inflation.”

  134. Aniket Baliga says:

    Please explain – “A lower IIP number puts pressure on the RBI to lower the interest rates and aid industrial credit with cheaper credit.”

  135. yashwanth says:

    how can we track monetary policies?

  136. yashwanth says:

    thank you sir

  137. Hardik says:

    Do we have to look at all the mentioned indicators while transacting in the market or their is any specific indicator which can give us a wide perspective of all the variations happening in the market.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      No, you pick and choose what really works for you. Usually the indicator that you understand well is what works for you.

  138. Hardik says:

    In which sector is PMI index mainly used, if we refer to it in the market.

  139. Neethu says:


    From where can one get data on PMI, Like from which website?

  140. Shambhavi says:

    Hi Karthik,

    “Cash reserve ratio (CRR) – Every bank must maintain funds with RBI. The amount that they maintain is dependent on the CRR. If CRR increases, more money is sucked out of the mainstream economy, which is not good for the economy.”

    I would suggest to correct this as ” which is not good for the immediate growth of the economy”

  141. Achuthan says:

    Hi, how does increase in fiscal deficit affects the broader index like NIFTY in general?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      An expanding fiscal deficit means tighter economy, which is not good for the markets as well, which further means that the market will trend lower.

  142. Achuthan says:

    Thank you!

  143. Tulsi Tankha says:

    Hello sir,

    I wanted to ask if street expectations about the company’s earnings depend on the performance and corporate guidance of previous quarters and the performance of the industry and competitors as a whole.

    Also, how has this 50-index mark been decided in PMI?

    Thank you.

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Thats right, all of that gets factored in – guidance, how industry is performing, headwinds, tailwinds etc.

      Its a survey, not sure about the qualifications to get qualified for that survey.

  144. Anoop Mohanty says:

    Reply to the Query above – SAST stands for SAST(Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations, 2011

  145. Praveen k says:

    when i searching the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) in India I got Mining index, Manufacturing index, Electricity index, General index. is it the sum of these index is the IIP?

    • Karthik Rangappa says:

      Yes, while they are sector specific indices, IIP is for manufaturing, which is a larger index.

  146. Vikrant says:

    You have not mentioned about GDP

  147. Imtiyaz Parmar says:

    It would be helpful if you add all the links where we can actively track CPI, WPI, PMI and PII numbers

  148. karan says:

    think of a situation where a person working at tcs shares internal information to someone he knows lets say his relatives ? in this case the person will take advantage of insider trading? my question is how sebi would handle this
    is there any law or this is still a loop hole?

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